OpenDRI brings the philosophies and practices of the global open data movement to the challenges of reducing vulnerability and building resilience to natural hazards and the impacts of climate change across the globe.

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À Antananarivo, la cartographie libre comme outil de gestion collective des Fokontany

Auteur: Heliarizaka Princia, Directeur Exécutif à HABAKA. Co-auteur: Pierre Chrzanowski, Spécialiste des Données Ouvertes à OpenDRI. Tous les ans, de novembre à mars, Antananarivo est affectée par la saison des pluies. Les quartiers les plus pauvres sont généralement ceux qui sont les plus touchés par les inondations. Des projets d’infrastructures existent pour aider la capitale de Madagascar à faire face aux fortes précipitations et améliorer les conditions de vie de ses habitants. Le Projet de Développement Urbain Intégré et de Résilience du Grand Antananarivo, soutenu par la Banque Mondiale, en fait partie. Cependant, ces initiatives partagent toutes la même difficulté : un manque de données fiables pour planifier et assurer leur mise en œuvre. Le programme Open Cities du GFDRR vise à répondre à ce défaut d’information en appuyant les communautés locales – les Fokontany  – à mieux collecter, partager et utiliser les données de leur territoire. Crédit image : Antananarivo Capitale de Madagascar Baobab29, CC Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license, disponible sur Wikicommons Open Cities à Antananarivo Le projet Open Cities Antananarivo a consisté à réaliser une cartographie générale des quartiers de Anjezika I et II, Anatihazo II et Manarintsoa. La particularité de ces quartiers est leur position géographique, dans les zones basses de la ville, ce qui explique leur vulnérabilité aux inondations. Grâce à la plateforme de collecte et de partage de données libre et collaborative OpenStreetMap, la Communauté OpenStreetMap Madagascar et des étudiants de l’Université ont réalisé une cartographie détaillée des zones d’habitation et des infrastructures existantes. Ces informations pourront servir pour planifier les travaux nécessaires à une meilleure gestion des pluies, notamment le système de drainage. Le projet a enfin bénéficié du soutien de l’ONG HABAKA, un acteur clé pour la promotion des nouvelles technologies à Madagascar qui réalise des projets à vocation sociale et à des finalités de développement humains et du pays. HABAKA a collaboré de manière étroite avec les organismes publiques et les communautés du secteur de la cartographie, de l’urbanisation et des technologies de l’information. Les principes de l’Open Data appliqués à la cartographie Madagascar tarde à opérer sa transition vers le numérique et le concept de données ouvertes – open data en anglais – reste encore largement méconnu. Néanmoins, des outils comme OpenStreetMap ou l’usage de drones permettent à chacun de collecter et partager plus facilement la donnée géographique, et ainsi d’apprendre et de mettre en pratique les principes de données ouvertes, qui prônent l’accès à l’information pour tous, sans restriction aucune. Dans le cadre d’Open Cities, les données collectées sont avant tout utiles pour le gouvernement et les acteurs responsables du développement urbain et de la gestion des risques de catastrophes naturelles. La collecte de données doit donc être planifiée en coordination avec ces différents acteurs et répondrent aux besoins identifiés : le risque d’inondations des quartiers, les conditions de vie des habitants, le développement des espaces verts. Les citoyens doivent également pouvoir bénéficier de telles informations, afin notamment d’améliorer leurs comportements face aux risques. Toutefois, pour ces derniers, une étape d’apprentissage en matière de lecture et d’analyse des données peut se révéler nécessaire. Cela peut aussi passer par de la vulgarisation. Open Cities : une démarche inclusive de collecte, partage et utilisation de données La particularité de la méthodologie mise en œuvre dans le projet Open Cities est sa dimension inclusive. En effet la communauté de bénévoles OpenStreetMap a collaboré avec les acteurs gouvernementaux dont la Cellule de Prévention et Gestion des Urgences (CPGU), une institution publique qui intervient dans la gestion des risques de catastrophe. La CPGU possède une expertise en prise d’images par drones. Le projet inclut également les autorités locales comme la municipalité et les chefs Fokontany qui sont les premiers concernés par les questions de développement local. Par leurs connaissances du terrain, ces autorités ont pu également contribuer à la collecte de données. La collecte de données sur OSM, avant et après Open Cities Utiliser la donnée dans les projets d’urbanisme, l’enjeu majeur du projet Le succès d’Open Cities doit se mesurer à la fois sur la qualité et la quantité de données collectées, mais également sur leur ré-utilisation dans les différents projets qui visent à améliorer la ville. Ces données de qualité qui concernent à la fois l’utilisation des terres, les infrastructures et les habitants doivent permettrent de mieux cibler les zones, bâtiments et populations prioritaires et décider des méthodes d’interventions (curage des canaux, campagnes de communication, etc.). Pour résumer, le projet Open Cities à Antananarivo, c’est: L’application des principes de données ouvertes pour la collecte et le partage de l’information  à travers notamment la plateforme Open Street Map et l’usage de drones, la collaboration avec des institutions, la consultation de la population et des autorité locales, des enquêtes socio-économiques;La cartographie de 3284 bâtiments, 235 km de routes, 107 km de canaux par 26 personnes pendant 2 mois; Le partage des données en ligne sur des plateformes dédiées comme OpenStreetMap ou Geonode; L’analyse et l’utilisation des données pour mieux cibler les interventions possibles telles que le curage des canaux, le renforcement des digues, la communication auprès des populations. Il revient ainsi à chaque catégorie d’acteur de s’approprier des informations pour établir des projets et des politiques dont la finalité est la résilience du Fokontany. Pour plus d’informations sur le projet : https://opencitiesproject.org/antananarivo/

Measuring the state of global open data for disasters and climate change adaptation

By Pierre Chrzanowski, Open Data Specialist at OpenDRI. Co-author: Grace Doherty, Geospatial Consultant at OpenDRI. A few months ago, OpenDRI released the beta version of the OpenDRI Index, a new tool to track and measure the availability of disaster risk data at country level. Today, we are pleased to publish the Global Datasets page, a preliminary list of worldwide or near worldwide coverage disaster risk datasets with an indication on whether the data is open or restricted to access and re-use. The Index measures the availability of more than three dozen global disaster risk datasets Through the OpenDRI Index, we aim to advance the state of open data for disaster and climate risk management around the world, providing a better picture of what is available as open data and identifying essential data that is not yet available. In disaster risk management and more generally in the development sector, one of the trends is to rely more and more on global level datasets – that is, data with worldwide or near worldwide coverage – offering enough information and details for country, city or even district-level projects. For instance, there are now several projects offering world-level information on human settlements: critical data for anyone who needs to know where vulnerable populations are. Global datasets are often developed as a response to a lack of accurate disaster risk data in many parts of the world, but they have other advantages. A global dataset offers a standardized and very convenient way to look at and compare different territories. What is disaster risk data? What is open? The OpenDRI Index provides a list of high-value datasets considered essential for understanding and measuring disaster risk. Those different key datasets are classified into five risk sector categories (base data, exposure, hazard, vulnerability and risk) and include datasets such as digital elevation model, population, infrastructures or more specific disaster information such as records of hazard events or flood maps. The categories and key datasets available on the OpenDRI Index For each key dataset definition, users have the possibility to add one or more dataset instances and determine their level of openness according to a set of 10 open data criteria which consider technical, legal and cost issues for access, sharing and use. A dataset is considered open data where all or almost all criteria are met. Below is a summary of the state of global level disaster risk datasets identified by the GFDRR-Labs and OpenDRI. Please note that this is a work in progress to which you are encouraged to add your own information. Preliminary results for global datasets Most of the global datasets identified through this preliminary survey are available as open data or with some restriction. Out of 37 datasets tracked, not one is considered closed (access not permitted for external users), 16 have technical, legal or cost restrictions and 21 have been cleared as open data. An example of a dataset with legal restrictions on re-use What restrictions are we facing? Looking more closely, the main restriction concerns datasets that are not available in an open license, are under unclear terms of use, or contain legal terms prohibiting some types of reuse. Recommendation: Open licensing is not an anecdotal issue. Because of legal uncertainty, users may be prevented by their organization re-use critical disaster risk information in disaster risk management projects or, worse, during a response to disaster. Therefore, licensing should always be considered carefully by data publishers when releasing their datasets. Another common restriction encountered is datasets not downloadable at once (in bulk), only readable through Web Map Service, or slowed down by technical restrictions to download, such as user registration. Recommendation: When doing a disaster risk assessment, data collection and preparation is often the most time-consuming task, more so than the risk assessment itself. Reducing time to retrieve the data is therefore critical for any disaster risk management project. Releasing datasets through a direct download should be the default option for any organization whose mission is to foster data re-use. Lastly, no global level datasets could be identified for some of the most essential information in disaster risk management, such as building footprints or other exposure data. If you are aware of any missing key risk dataset at global level, please contribute on the website. Improving the state of global open data for disasters and climate change adaptation Unsurprisingly, the availability and ease of use of global datasets is better than most country level disaster risk data. After all, the primary purpose of most of these global products is to be used as a replacement for missing or restricted country level data. However, while they may offer a possible alternative, global data do not always meet the requirements of site-specific risk studies for which additional data collection may be needed. This survey is a work in progress but it already offers some good insights on the state of global datasets for disaster and climate change adaptation: Open licensing should be considered more seriously by international organizations and other global datasets providers.Technical restrictions on download are not anecdotal and datasets should be available through a direct download link.Some of the most needed data for disaster risk management, such as building footprints are still not available at global level, something worth considering by organizations investing in such global data infrastructures. For more information, please visit the OpenDRI Index website. Notes: The OpenDRI Index is a product led by OpenDRI and supported by GFDRR.This is a free online tool anyone can contribute to. The Global data page will be updated on a continuous basis.The OpenDRI Index does not look at the quality and granularity of the datasets.Thanks to GFDRR and World Bank GSURR teams for suggesting global data sources. Image Credit: Ocean Biology Processing Group at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, Public Domain

Leveraging OpenStreetMap to improve disaster risk management in the Seychelles

By Michael Wagner, Geospatial Software Developer and Consultant at allspatial. Co-authors: Grace Doherty, Geospatial Consultant at OpenDRI and Boris van Zanten, DRM & Ecosystem Services Consultant at the World Bank. Open Cities Africa Seychelles is targeting the coastal areas of the archipelago’s three main inner islands (Mahe, Praslin and La Digue) to gather information on the risk of urban and coastal flooding. While these risks are real and relevant to anyone situated in the coastal areas, we are looking at the impact on tourism establishments in particular (with tourism being the main sector of economy in the Seychelles). Figure 1: The three main islands covered under the project. Stakeholder engagement: Building the OpenStreetMap Our first stakeholder meeting was held in early 2018 at the Seychelles Geospatial Working Group, attended by the Department of Risk and Disaster Management, the Tourism Department, and several first responders, among others. Collaborators worked to define the details of the data model, prioritizing severe impact sites such as tourism establishments and buildings with more vulnerable “occupants,” such as schools, daycares, nursing homes, and clinics. “We estimate that OSM now covers around 95% of the building outlines on the three main islands to date.” In August, these organisations returned for a four-day hands-on workshop on GIS and OpenStreetMap (OSM), joined by secondary school teachers (Figure 2). The training covered the basics of OSM’s iD editor and JOSM and highlighted key GIS processes, such as using OSM data in QGIS. While one reason for providing the training was to support the collection of risk relevant data, these sessions have equipped attendees with data collection and analysis skills that are valuable far beyond the disaster risk management context. Figure 2: Twenty-three participants attend the training course on GIS and OSM. We held an intensive one-week mapathon a week later at three parallel events on each of the targeted islands. Around 70 teachers and students from six secondary schools volunteered their time to the events (Figure 3). Mappers used the paper-based Field Papers approach for field data collection, alternating days between the field and data processing indoors. The results of the mapathon for the largest island, Mahe, are shown in Figures 4 and 5. Figure 3: Students on Mahe during the data processing session. Figure 4: Tourism establishments captured. Figure 5: Buildings captured. Figure 6: Tourism establishments captured (after revisit). Figure 7: Buildings captured (after revisit). Features are shown as points to visualize location and density. Color from Overpass Turbo tagging. After performing some quality control and validation, our core team of four revisited some of the sites on Mahe (final results in Figures 6 and 7). Overall, we captured about 60% of the tourism establishments in the coastal areas of the three main islands. We would like to mention that the Centre for GIS and the National Bureau of Statistics made a great open data contribution to the OpenStreetMap Foundation. As a result, we were able to import about 32,000 buildings into OSM by August. We estimate that OSM now covers around 95% of the building outlines on the three main islands to date. Parallel efforts: Drone workshop and mapping April 2018 saw the launch of a drone workshop organized by World Bank, our team and drone trainers from Zanzibar (Figure 8). The results were orthorectified images (i.e. distortions removed, correct orientation and position, constant scale) with 7cm ground resolution; one image pixel represents 7cm in nature (Figure 9). These images were later used during the community mapping exercise to identify and trace risk relevant data. Figure 8: Drone mapping coverage, April 2018. Figure 9: Sample of a drone image (jetty on La Digue). Sustainability in product development While we were planning for some (mobile) app originally to visualize and understand risk and impact under different scenarios using the data we collected we eventually decided against it. There is already great open source software available providing precisely such functionality, such as InaSAFE. Instead, stakeholders will benefit from an automated workflow to extract and convert risk relevant OSM data into a proper GIS data format on a regular basis that can be used easily for all kind of spatial analysis. Many of these stakeholders also use the main geodatabase of the Centre for GIS, either via direct access or via standard web services such as WFS and WMS. The tool in development will import OSM data into that main geodatabase on a daily basis and thus, provide the stakeholders with up-to-date and easy-to-analyze risk data. To ensure sustainability, stakeholder organizations are advised to update existing data which may serve needs beyond their own organization (such as buildings, roads, rivers, etc.) on OSM instead of performing updates in siloed, closed environments.

Au Cameroun, la cartographie libre pour aider Ngaoundéré à s’adapter au changement climatique

Auteurs: Michel Tchotsoua ; Simon Pierre Petnga Nyamen ; Prosper Innocent Ndjeuto Tchouli ; Arabo Mohamadou ; Issouhou Mouhaman ; Ahmad Barngawi Mohammad ; Gabriel Amougou Amougou et Grace Doherty. La ville de Ngaoundéré fait face à des défis récurrents liés aux risques de catastrophes naturelles, qui augmentent au fur et à mesure que sa croissance urbaine rapide et non planifiée se poursuit. Entre 2005 et 2015, la population de la ville est passée de 180 763 à près de 270 000 habitants, et son emprise urbaine a presque doublé, passant de 3 648 ha à un peu plus de 6 381 ha. Son urbanisation a eu lieu, en grande partie de façon spontanée, entraînant une occupation croissante de nombreuses zones humides exposées aux inondations chaque année, du mois de mai à septembre, et des versants des montagnes aux risques d’éboulement de blocs rocheux sans aménagements préalables. Compte tenu de sa localisation en milieu soudano-sahélien, la ville de Ngaoundéré est aussi exposée aux effets extrêmes de changements climatiques. Maisons exposées aux risques géomorphologiques à Socaret. ©ACAGER, Tchotsoua, Octobre 2018. Séance de cartographie participative avec les habitants du quartier Mardock. ©ACAGER, Moutsina, Août 2018. Alors qu’un Plan Directeur d’Urbanisme (PDU) et des plans d’aménagement du territoire ont été approuvés en 2016 pour orienter son urbanisation future, le conseil municipal de Ngaoundéré manque d’outils de base pour guider efficacement l’utilisation des sols et entretenir les différentes infrastructures de base existantes. La Communauté Urbaine de Ngaoundéré (CUN), ne disposant pas encore d’un Système d’Information Géographique (SIG) opérationnel de la ville, est limitée à l’utilisation des cartes physiques qui sont obsolètes pour la plupart. Ainsi, le défi est de lui faciliter l’accès aux informations géoréférencées actualisées, en particulier sur les infrastructures de base (équipements urbains, routes, drainage, occupation des sols, etc.), sous forme de cartes physiques et numériques, pour contribuer à une meilleure prise de décision par l’analyse de ces données d’une part, et aider à une planification et une gestion urbaines interactives, d’autre part. Photo de famille des Mappeurs avec les formateurs de la Communauté OpenStreetMap Cameroun. ©ACAGER, Fotsing, Octobre 2018. Afin de relever ces défis, la Communauté Urbaine de Ngaoundéré, en partenariat avec la Banque Mondiale, le  Facilité Mondiale pour Prévention des Risques de Catastrophes et le Relèvement (GFDRR), le Ministère de l’Habitat et du Développement Urbain (MINHDU) par le Projet de Développement des Villes Inclusives et Résilientes (PDVIR), le Laboratoire de Géomatique de l’Université de Ngaoundéré, les organisations de la société civile et les populations vivants dans les zones à risque, ont mutualisé leurs efforts à travers le Projet Open Cities Africa – Ngaoundéré, pour recueillir systématiquement les données sur l’exposition et la vulnérabilité des habitants de Ngaoundéré aux risques de catastrophes naturelles. L’objectif étant de permettre aux différentes parties prenantes de mieux anticiper et de prioriser les investissements pour préparer la ville à faire face aux inondations, chutes de pierres, érosion des sols et/ou écroulements de blocs rocheux. Organisée en trois principales étapes, la campagne de cartographie collaborative a débuté par la collecte des données de base sur la ville de Ngaoundéré. Sous la conduite des Mappeurs expérimentés de la communauté OpenStreetMap Cameroun, une dizaine de jeunes Mappeurs constituée des étudiants de l’Université de Ngaoundéré et des stagiaires de la Communauté Urbaine de Ngaoundéré ont édité plus de 20 000 objets (bâtiments, cours d’eau et rues) sous OSM en 2 mois. Marquage des points de contrôle au sol pour la préparation de la couverture drone. Le Professeur Tchotsoua explique aux populations le but de ce marquage afin que la croix ne sème pas de doute dans les esprits. © ACAGER, Petnga Nyamen, Novembre 2018. Durant cette première phase, l’équipe a alterné entre la digitalisation, le contrôle de la qualité et la validation des données cartographiées sous OSM. De plus, certaines données collectées dans le cadre de ses précédentes activités par l’Association pour la Cartographie et la Gestion des Ressources (ACAGER) et celles collectées sur le terrain par les Mappeurs à l’aide de l’application QField, soient un peu plus de 3 000 objets ponctuels, ont été tous chargés sur OSM. Par ailleurs, à l’aide de l’outil Java OpenStreetMap (JOSM), les principaux types d’occupation des sols de la ville de Ngaoundéré ont été cartographiés offline puis chargés sur OSM. La deuxième étape de la campagne de cartographie collaborative de l’espace urbain de Ngaoundéré a consisté en la caractérisation des bâtiments situés dans les zones à risques d’inondations et morphologiques. Ce travail a été réalisé à l’aide des formulaires d’enquêtes intégrées à QField. Dix tablettes Samsung Tab A6 ont été mobilisées à cet effet. Cette collecte a été menée sur le terrain par des étudiants auxquels ont été associés quelques habitants des zones à risques. La troisième partie de l’implémentation de l’Initiative Villes Ouvertes à Ngaoundéré a consisté en la préparation et la réalisation de la couverture drone de quatre quartiers situés dans la zone inondable (Gadamabanga ; Djalingo ; Sabongari 3 et Nord CIFAN), et des Monts Ngaoundéré sur lesquels se construisent les quartiers Onaref, Socaret, Bamyanga et Béka Hosséré. À terme, le Projet Villes Ouvertes à Ngaoundéré permettra respectivement : de produire de nouvelles données à jour et en libre accès sur les risques d’inondations, de chutes de pierres, d’érosion hydrique et d’écroulement de berges, d’utiliser de nouveaux outils/produits (Atlas) pour les examiner, de renforcer les capacités des populations locales et, de forger de nouveaux partenariats entre les différentes parties prenantes. Lancement du drone pour la couverture des zones à risques naturels.  L’entreprise SO-GEO a aussi permis aux membres de l’ACAGER de se former à l’utilisation de son équipement. © ACAGER, Petnga Nyamen, Novembre 2018.   Pour plus d’informations sur le projet Open Cities Ngaoundéré, suivez nos progrès sur https://opencitiesproject.org/ngaoundere. Open Cities Africa is financed by the EU-funded ACP-EU Africa Disaster Risk Financing Program, managed by the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery.

projects

Open Cities Africa

Carried out in 11 cities in Sub-Saharan Africa to engage local government, civil society, and the private sector to develop the information infrastructures necessary to meet 21st century urban resilience challenges. The project is implemented through a unique partnership between GFDRR and the World Bank, city governments across the continent, and a partner community comprised of regional scientific and technology organizations, development partners, and technology companies. WEBSITE COUNTERPARTSCITIES opencitiesproject.org National and Provincial Ministries, Municipal Offices and Local Development Committees ACCRA, Ghana ANTANANARIVO, Madagascar BRAZZAVILLE, Republic of Congo KAMPALA, Uganda KINSHASA, Democratic Republic of Congo MONROVIA, Liberia NGAOUNDÉRÉ, Cameroon POINTE-NOIRE, Republic of Congo SAINT-LOUIS, Senegal SEYCHELLES ZANZIBAR CITY, Tanzania Overview As urban populations and vulnerability grow, managing urban growth in a way that fosters cities’ resilience to natural hazards and the impacts of climate change becomes a greater challenge that requires detailed, up-to-date geographic data of the built environment. Addressing this challenge requires innovative, open, and dynamic data collection and mapping processes that support management of urban growth and disaster risk. Success is often contingent on local capacities and networks to maintain and utilize risk information, enabling policy environments to support effective data management and sharing, and targeted tools that can help translate data into meaningful action. Building on the success of the global Open Data for Resilience Initiative, its work on Open Cities projects in South Asia, and GFDRR’s Code for Resilience, Open Cities Africa is carried out in 11 cities in Sub-Saharan Africa to engage local government, civil society, and the private sector to develop the information infrastructures necessary to meet 21st century urban resilience challenges. Following an application process, a small team of mappers, technologists, designers, and risk experts in each of the selected cities receive funding, targeted training, technical support, and mentorship throughout the year of work to: i) create and/or compile open spatial data on the built environment, critical infrastructure, and natural hazards; ii) develop targeted systems and tools to assist key stakeholders to utilize risk information; and iii) support local capacity-building and institutional development necessary for designing and implementing evidence-driven urban resilience interventions. Phases of Implementation 1. Plan and Assess In the first phase, Open Cities teams establish what data already exists and its openness, relevance and value. Project target area and data to collect are finalized. This phase is also when teams identify project partners and stakeholders to ensure that efforts are a participatory process. At the Open Cities Kick Off Meeting, teams meet with Open Cities leadership and the other Open Cities teams in their cohort and receive training on project components. 2. Map In this second phase, teams roll out the findings and data capture strategy developed in the first phase to address critical data gaps relevant to their specific Problem Statements. On the ground, teams coordinate field data collection according to the approach developed and agreed upon in consultation with project stakeholders. Depending on needs, tools for data collection may include smartphones or tablets, drones for the collection of high resolution imagery, or handheld GPS. As the project team is training team members to collect data for the project, efforts are made to develop, and/or strengthen the local OpenStreetMap community within the selected city working in partnership with local stakeholders. Project teams may hold trainings, mapathons, or community town halls in coordination with a local university, NGO or government counterparts. 3. Design In this third phase of the project, teams use the data collected in the Map Phase to design a tool or product to communicate the data to their stakeholders to support decision-making. Products vary widely depending on city context and may include a database and visualization tool, an atlas, a map series, or a mobile application. 4. Develop and Present In the final phase of the project, teams develop their tools/products and share results with targeted end user populations and other relevant stakeholders. Once final products are shared, teams work with project mentors and Open Cities Africa leadership to establish a sustainability plan and to explore opportunities for expansion or extension. This could include convening meetings with the World Bank, government counterparts, or the nongovernmental organization and donor communities. It may also include the development of concept notes, proposals or additional user research. Learn More More information about the project and team activities can be found on the Open Cities Africa site.

Niger

In Niger, the World Bank is supporting the Government reduce the vulnerability of populations at risk of flooding, while taking into account the requirements of community development and capacity building of national structures both at central and local level. DATA SHARING PLATFORM http://risques-niger.org   COUNTERPART PGCR-DU (Projet de Gestion des Risques de Catastrophes et de Développement Urbain – Disaster Risk Management and Urban Development Project) NUMBER OF GEONODE LAYERS39 Understanding Niger’s Risks Despite its semi-arid climate, Niger is regularly stricken by floods that destroy housing, infrastructure and croplands everywhere in the country. While flood damages usually occur in the vicinity of permanent water bodies such as the Niger and Komadougou rivers, more and more damages and casualties have been reported as linked to intense precipitations and runoff in urban areas. Despite the recurrent losses, little is known about the number of people who are living in flood-prone areas or the value of properties at risk. Furthermore, the vast majority of stations in the meteorological and hydrological collection network does not have the ability to transmit data in real-time and therefore cannot be fully exploited in emergency situations. Collecting Data With the support of the World Bank, the PGRC-DU is supporting the Nigerien Ministry of water and sanitation to retrofit the hydrometric station network with new water level gauges with real-time data transmission capability. The new gauges will make hydrometric data collection more efficient and more reliable while allowing for a faster detection of flood risk. At the same time, the PGRC-DU is funding the collection of critical socio-economic information and building characteristics in all areas of Niamey (the capital of Niger) that are deemed vulnerable to floods. UAVs are being used to acquire high-resolution images of potentially flooded areas that would help better identify buildings characteristics and develop a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) with 10cm vertical resolution, which will help better predict water movement in the area. Sharing Data The collected hydrometric data will be available to selected users in an online portal, along with various other data sets from regional and global sources. Part of the data collected in Niamey is expected to contribute to the OpenStreetMap project. The rest of the data will be analyzed and converted into vulnerability maps and reports available to the public. Using Data It is expected that the network of real-time hydrometric stations will be used to feed a flood warning system that will provide authorities a better estimate of flood risk at any given time. The acquired DTM is being used to develop computer models that can simulate flood propagation in the city of Niamey and evaluate the effects of existing of planned flood protection infrastructures. Finally, the collected socio-economic data combined with flood simulations will provide decision-makers an accurate estimation of flood risk in terms of exposed populations and expected economic damages.

Uganda

In Uganda, the World Bank is supporting the Government to develop improved access to drought risk related information and quicken the decision of scaling up disaster risk financing (DRF) mechanisms COUNTERPART National Emergency Coordination and Operations Center (NECOC) Project Overview In the context of the third Northern Uganda Social Action Fund Project (NUSAF III), the World Bank is supporting the Government of Uganda to develop improved access to drought risk related information and quicken the decision of scaling up disaster risk financing (DRF) mechanisms. The OpenDRI team is providing technical assistance to Uganda’s National Emergency Coordination and Operations Center (NECOC) in determining requirements for collecting, storing and analyzing satellite data used for monitoring drought conditions. Understanding Uganda’s Risk In recent years Uganda has been impacted by drought, with more than 10% of the population being at risk. The northern sub-region of Karamoja is one of the most severely hit, with a consequent increase in food insecurity. Currently the Government of Uganda (GoU) faces challenges in the collection and analysis of information upon which they can base a decision to respond and mitigate such risk. Without transparent, objective and timely data, times in mobilizing and financing responses can be delayed. Collecting Data The World Bank is supporting GoU to strengthen its disaster risk management strategy and response mechanisms. The current engagement looks to develop a more systematic, robust system for collecting, storing and analyzing drought risk related information to enable GoU to make more timely decisions. By retrieving satellite data systematically, NECOC will be able to analyze current crop and vegetation conditions with historic information, and quickly detect early warning signs of drought. Uganda has a vibrant OpenStreetMap community, which has been mapping the country since 2010. A pilot community mapping project funded by GFDRR with support from the Government of Belgium, is being conducted in the city of Kampala. Sharing Data The OpenDRI team provides support and advice to GoU in developing best practices for sharing and managing risk related information. Interoperability of data sources produced by various ministries and non-government organizations is critical to ensure timely access to data by NECOC and conduct effective drought risk analysis. A geospatial data sharing platform will be deployed by GoU to facilitate exchange of such critical information and adoption of data standards. Using Data A technical committee, composed of experts from the government and partner organizations, has agreed to use a satellite derived indicator known as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as the primary dataset to inform decisions for triggering the disaster risk financing mechanism. Initially the system will be exclusively dedicated to monitoring drought risk in the northern sub-region of Karamoja. In the following years, it is expected to expand operations and cover other regions exposed to drought risk, integrating additional data sources which will become accessible thanks to improved data collection strategies and sharing mechanisms.

Zanzibar

The Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar (RGoZ) with the support of the World Bank has been developing the Open Data for Resilience Initiative (OpenDRI) with the aim of supporting evidence-based and innovative solutions to better plan, mitigate, and prepare for natural disasters. Zanzibar is part of the Southwest Indian Ocean Risk Assessment and Financing Initiative (SWIO RAFI) which seeks to address high vulnerability of the Southwest Indian Ocean Island States to disaster losses from catastrophes such as cyclones, floods, earthquakes and tsunamis. These threats are exacerbated by the effects of climate change, a growing population and increased economic impacts. DATA SHARING PLATFORM PROJECT PAGE ZAN SEA FACEBOOK PAGE http://zansea-geonode.org www.zanzibarmapping.com https://www.facebook.com/zansea/ Understanding Zanzibar’s Risk Zanzibar’s disaster events are mainly related to rainfall, and both severe flooding and droughts have been experienced. Sharing Data Island Map: OpenStreetMap Data collected through SWIO RAFI activities will be shared on a GeoNode. The ZanSea GeoNode currently contains 42 maps and 102 layers of geospatial data for Zanzibar. Collecting Data The Zanzibar mapping initiative is creating a high resolution map of the islands of Zanzibar and Pemba, over 2300 square km, using low-cost drones instead of satellite images or manned planes. The Zanzibar Commission for Lands will use the maps for better planning, land tenure and environmental monitoring. Data is being collected in collaboration with the RGoZ. Using Data Data collected can be used for risk assessment and planning activities.

Pacific Islands: Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu

Pacific Catastrophe Risk Assessment and Financing Initiative (PCRAFI) is a joint initiative of SOPAC/SPC, World Bank, and the Asian Development Bank with the financial support of the Government of Japan, the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) and the ACP-EU Natural Disaster Risk Reduction Programme, and technical support from AIR Worldwide, New Zealand GNS Science, Geoscience Australia, Pacific Disaster Center (PDC), OpenGeo and GFDRR Labs. DATA SHARING PLATFORM http://pcrafi.spc.int/beta/ NUMBER OF LAYERS 522 Understanding Risks in Pacific Island Countries The Pacific Island Countries are highly exposed to the adverse effects of climate change and natural hazards, which can result in disasters affecting their economic, human, and physical environment and impacting their long-term development agenda. Since 1950, natural disasters have affected approximately 9.2 million people in the Pacific Region, causing 9,811 reported deaths. Sharing Data throughout the Pacific Islands Launched in December 2011, the Pacific Risk Information System enhances management and sharing of geospatial data within the Pacific community. The system enables the creation of a dynamic online community around risk data by piloting the integration of social web features with geospatial data management. Exposure, hazard, and risk maps for 15 Pacific Countries were produced as part of the Pacific Catastrophe Risk Assessment and Financing Initiative (PCRAFI) 2 and are accessible through this platform as powerful visual tools for informing decision-makers, facilitating communication and education on disaster risk management. Thumbnail Image by Samoa Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade licensed under CC BY 2.0

Sri Lanka

The Disaster Management Centre of Sri Lanka (DMC) with the support of the World Bank has been developing the Open Data for Resilience Initiative (OpenDRI) to support evidence-based methods to better plan for, mitigate, and respond to natural disasters. COUNTERPART Disaster Management Centre, Ministry of Disaster Management NUMBER OF BUILDINGS MAPPED 130,564 with 8 attributes each ROADS MAPPED >1000 km   Understanding Sri Lanka’s Risks Since 2000, flood and drought events have cumulatively affected more than 13 million people across Sri Lanka. Regular flooding, drought, and landslides are natural hazards that threaten the long-term growth and development of the country. In Sri Lanka, nearly $500 million in unplanned expenditures resulting from flooding in 2010 and 2011 has strained government budgets and required reallocation from other planned development priorities. The impacts of these events are growing due to increased development and climate change, both of which put more assets at risk. Sharing Data To enable better disaster risk modeling, the Government of Sri Lanka partnered with GFDRR, UNDP and OCHA on the development of an OpenDRI program in November 2012. This branch of the initiative focused on the South Asia Region and was dubbed the Open Cities project. A component of the OpenDRI Open Cities mission in Sri Lanka was to collate data around hazards and exposure and prepare them to be uploaded into a GeoNode which serves as a disaster risk information platform. Working with the DMC, the National Survey Department, Department of the Census and Statistics, Nation Building Research Organization, Information and Communication Technology Agency, Department of Irrigation, several universities and the international partners, the OpenDRI team supported DMC with the aggregation of data that had been stored in static PDFs, old paper maps and several databases onto the GeoNode. The data on the GeoNode is currently available to authorized users in the OpenDRI network, in preparation for launch. This transitional state is typical for open data projects, as the partnership reviews data with the parties and affirms that it is ready for release to the open public. Some layers may restrict access only to authorized users. Collecting Data The project has also built technical capacity and awareness in Sri Lanka through training sessions on open data and crowdsourced mapping in Batticaloa city and Gampaha District. As a result of the Open Data for Resilience Initiative, government and academic volunteers have mapped over 130,000 buildings and 1000 kilometers of roadways on the crowdsourced OpenStreetMap database. This enables the country to plan ahead and be prepared for future disaster and climate risks. It also helps planning during disaster responses: the data was used to assess flooding impacts in real time and direct government resources during the May 2016 floods in Gampaha district.

resources

At OpenDRI we are committed to increasing information that can empower individuals and their governments to reduce risk to natural hazards and climate change in their communities. We’ve compiled a database of relevant resources to share what we have learned through our own projects and from the work of others.

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