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Quand résilience des villes rime avec épanouissement professionnel des jeunes

Auteurs : Dina Ranarifidy et Tamilwai Kolowa Article original à World Bank Blogs. (English) Quelques membres de l’équipe de jeunes Congolais recrutés pour cartographier les zones vulnérables de Brazzaville en utilisant la technologie Street View. Ici en compagnie des experts en analyse de données géospatiales de la société MindEarth. © MindEarth Lorsque nous avons lancé, en 2019, les activités Villes ouvertes (Open Cities) (a) en République du Congo, notre principal objectif était d’aider les municipalités de Brazzaville et de Pointe-Noire à mieux se prémunir contre les risques d’inondation et d’érosion en milieu urbain. Nous étions loin d’imaginer alors l’impact que ce projet aurait sur la jeunesse congolaise. En plus de renforcer la résilience des villes aux chocs climatiques, le projet Villes ouvertes a suscité chez les jeunes Congolais une véritable passion pour l’urbanisme et la cartographie participative tout en leur donnant l’occasion d’apprendre et de trouver des débouchés professionnels . Nous avons eu le privilège d’assister à cet élan d’enthousiasme et d’observer les changements dans ces deux villes. Jusque-là, les données urbanistiques étaient rares, souvent obsolètes et difficilement accessibles. Elles étaient de ce fait une denrée coûteuse, ce qui contrariait les efforts pour planifier durablement et efficacement l’espace urbain. Lorsque les étudiants congolais ont appris que le projet Villes ouvertes mobilisait les ressources locales pour pallier cette pénurie de données, en promouvant ainsi la production d’informations gratuites, accessibles et collaboratives, ils y ont vu une opportunité. Ces jeunes ont réalisé qu’ils pouvaient collecter des données inaccessibles autrement, les partager librement et les analyser afin d’améliorer la situation de leurs quartiers, et se sont investis avec ferveur et fierté dans ce défi. À Pointe-Noire, les mapathons (a) organisés régulièrement dans le cadre des activités Villes ouvertes ont donné naissance à une communauté de cartographes bénévoles et passionnés . Des exercices qui ont également renforcé l’engagement citoyen et permis aux jeunes d’acquérir de nouvelles compétences. Christian Massama Ganga, fraîchement diplômé de l’université Marien Ngouabi de Brazzaville, nous a confié apprécier de pouvoir utiliser des outils en libre accès pour recueillir des données sur son quartier. Grâce à cette initiative, il s’est plongé dans la cartographie ouverte et envisage désormais de mettre à profit ses nouvelles connaissances pour décrocher son doctorat. Fort de ses compétences cartographiques certifiées, il s’est porté candidat pour faire partie des équipes chargées du recensement national. À terme, Christian rêve d’une carte couvrant « tout le Congo » pour que les habitants et les touristes puissent s’orienter facilement. La municipalité de Pointe-Noire a elle aussi tiré directement parti de cette collaboration : ayant recruté certains de ces cartographes enthousiastes, elle a renforcé les liens entre une jeunesse dynamique et les autorités traditionnelles, pour le bien de la ville. Et c’est là où les universités jouent notamment un rôle décisif de passerelle. Une équipe de jeunes cartographes équipés de leurs appareils photo arpente des quartiers non cartographiés de Brazzaville, au Congo. © MindEarth Rapprocher les étudiants des opportunités professionnelles    À Pointe-Noire, l’université catholique d’Afrique centrale et l’Institut catholique des arts et métiers (UCAC-ICAM), qui possèdent aussi un campus à Douala et à Yaoundé au Cameroun, servent de tremplin professionnel aux ingénieurs et techniciens. Partenaire de l’initiative Open Cities Africa (a), l’UCAC-ICAM forme ses étudiants à la collecte et l’analyse de données et les fait participer directement à ces opérations. En intégrant les activités de l’initiative dans le cursus universitaire, l’institut élargit les options professionnelles proposées aux étudiants. Promouvoir l’aménagement urbain grâce à un vivier de cartographes Cette nouvelle cohorte de cartographes compétents et maîtrisant les nouvelles technologies constitue un précieux atout pour les municipalités lors des projets collaboratifs. Leurs compétences ont également été mobilisées pour accompagner les activités de réhabilitation de quartiers précaires menés au titre du Projet de développement urbain et de restructuration des quartiers précaires (DURQuaP) (a) financé par la Banque mondiale. Certains étudiants ont été embauchés par le DURQuaP pour collecter et analyser les données d’appui aux investissements d’infrastructure (pavage et ouvrages de drainage) financés au titre du projet. Plus récemment, des cartographes locaux à Brazzaville et Pointe-Noire ont pris part à la collecte, à l’analyse et à la classification de données en vue d’expérimenter un nouvel exercice de cartographie fondé sur la technologie Street View et destiné à évaluer la vulnérabilité des quartiers et les risques d’inondation. Au Congo, le projet Villes ouvertes a su s’appuyer sur les talents et les compétences de jeunes gens passionnés et, pour ces étudiants prometteurs comme pour les villes auxquelles ils consacrent leur énergie, le meilleur est à venir ! 

Making cities resilient helps youth thrive professionally: A tale of resilience from Congo

By Dina Ranarifidy and Tamilwai Kolowa This article was originally published on World Bank Blogs. (Français) Local mappers in Congo hired to map vulnerable areas in Brazzaville using the Street View technology, along with geospatial experts from the company, MindEarth When we launched Open Cities activities in Brazzaville, Congo, in 2019, our main objective was to help the municipalities of Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire design tools to mitigate floods and erosion risks in urban areas. Little did we know that the outcome of this work would have a powerful impact on the Congolese youth. Beyond making cities more resilient against climate shocks, Open Cities foster a passion for urban planning and participatory mapping among youth, providing them with learning and work opportunities . And we were privileged to witness this passion and change firsthand in Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire. City data was scarce, often obsolete, and hardly accessible. This made it a pricey commodity, hampering efforts to plan cities effectively and sustainably. So, when Open Cities made efforts to tap into local resources and fill the data gap—introducing opportunities for free, accessible, and collaborative data—Congolese students jumped on the chance. Now able to collect data that was otherwise unavailable, share it freely, and analyze it to improve their community, university students became excited and proud to play a part in shaping their communities.   In Pointe-Noire, regular mapathons during Open cities activities have built a community of passionate non-commercial mappers . These activities have also forged citizen engagement and bolstered new skills amongst youth. Christian Massama Ganga, a recent graduate from Marien Ngouabi University in Brazzaville, told us that he values using open source tools to learn and collect data on his surroundings. Through the initiative, he delved into open data mapping, and now plans to use this new knowledge to earn his Ph.D. With his certified mapping skills, he’s also applied to become a mapper for the national census. Eventually, Christian wants to map “all of Congo,” so that locals and visitors can navigate the city with ease. The municipality of Pointe-Noire has also directly benefitted from this collaboration. The city has recruited new staff from the mapping cohort, boosting the link between the young, agile mappers and the traditional authorities, all for the betterment of the city. And this is especially how universities play a major role—in bridging the gap. A team of young cartographers survey unmapped neighborhoods in Brazzaville, Congo, equipped with their cameras. © MindEarth Bridging students to greater opportunities In Pointe-Noire, the université catholique d’Afrique centrale and the Institut catholique des arts et métiers  (UCAC-ICAM), an engineering school with campuses in Pointe Noire, in Douala and Yaounde, also serves as a bridge to opportunity. Under the Open Cities Africa Initiative, the school partnered with the Open Cities initiative to train students and involve them directly in the process of data collection and analysis. By integrating Open Cities activities into the curriculum, the school now provides enhanced professional options to their graduates. Boosting urban planning for cities: skilled surveyors are just a call away This new, solid cohort of technically versed mappers bring value to their municipalities through collaborative projects. Mappers have also used their skills to support the ongoing slum-upgrading work through the World Bank-financed Congo Urban Development and Poor Neighborhood Upgrading project (DURQuaP). Some students have secured professional contracts to perform data collection and analysis that support infrastructure investments—like roads and drainage structures—carried out under the DURQuaP. Most recently, local mappers in Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire have been involved in collecting, analyzing and classifying data in a new activity that tests vulnerability assessments and flood risk mapping, using Street-View survey technology. Open Cities initiatives in Congolese cities have successfully built upon the skills and talents of passionate young mappers, and for these promising students and the cities they work on, the sky’s the limit! 

Quand les communautés africaines s’emparent du numérique pour cartographier leurs villes

Auteurs : Vivien Deparday, Grace Doherty, Mira Gupta, et Nuala Cowan Article original à World Bank Blogs. (English) Des étudiants cartographient un quartier de Dar es Salam (Tanzanie). Photo: Chris Morgan/Banque mondiale Par leurs apports technologiques, les satellites et les smartphones ont transformé la physionomie des cartes, radicalement différentes de celles auxquelles nous étions habitués. Aujourd’hui, la référence absolue en matière de cartographie, c’est le numérique. L’accessibilité des données, avec la généralisation du libre accès, permet à de multiples agences, organisations et collectivités de réutiliser immédiatement les données relevées pour les adapter à leurs besoins. Les cartes numériques sont aussi collaboratives : grâce à des plateformes participatives, comme OpenStreetMap, chacun peut ajouter une information et améliorer le travail déjà effectué. Or, la fourniture de services publics repose sur des données géographiques précises, permettant d’apporter aux personnes voulues et en temps voulu, les services dont ils ont besoin. Lors de l’épidémie d’Ebola en Afrique de l’Ouest, des initiatives de cartographie rapide ont ainsi permis aux agents de santé publique de localiser les foyers de la maladie. Elles contribuent aujourd’hui à ralentir la propagation du nouveau coronavirus. Une approche innovante de la mobilité mise en place par les habitants du quartier Doe à Monrovia (Libéria). Photo : Donnish Pewee, avec l’aimable autorisation d’iLab Liberia. Cependant aujourd’hui encore, les cartes humanitaires ont des lacunes : plus d’un milliard d’individus dans le monde n’y figurent pas. Leurs habitations, voire leurs quartiers entiers ne sont pas pris en compte dans les bases de données utilisées pour organiser les services aux citadins. Les cartographes numériques renforcent la résilience en Afrique Les communautés marginalisées connaissent bien leur environnement — des matériaux de construction utilisés pour les bâtiments aux routes en passant par la capacité des réseaux de drainage — mais les autorités ont souvent du mal à maintenir à jour ce type de données. À elles de collaborer avec les citoyens pour combler ce déficit cartographique numérique. Depuis le séisme qui a frappé Haïti en 2010, la Banque mondiale et la Facilité mondiale pour la réduction des risques de catastrophe et le relèvement (GFDRR) (a) travaillent avec la communauté OpenStreetMap pour mieux se préparer aux risques de catastrophe et y répondre en s’appuyant sur un réseau mondial de profils diversifiés. À ce jour, les contributeurs à OpenStreetMap ont cartographié plus de 600 millions de points rien que sur le continent africain. Les zones urbaines d’Afrique subsaharienne sont parmi les moins cartographiées au monde et les plus vulnérables. Nombre de quartiers défavorisés se trouvent dans des zones de basse altitude déconnectées du tissu urbain environnant. Grâce au projet Open Cities Africa, les autorités municipales travaillent avec des universités locales, des ONG et des membres des communautés pour recueillir des données géographiques précises afin de bâtir un avenir plus résilient. Des cartographes du projet Open Cities à Accra (Ghana). Photo : Stephen Mawutor Donkor/CC-BY-SA 4.0. Depuis 2018, les équipes d’Open Cities Africa ont formé plus de 500 citadins, étudiants et fonctionnaires à la collecte de données sur les risques, ajoutant ainsi plus d’un million de routes, marchés, hôpitaux, canaux et autres points d’intérêt sur OpenStreetMap. Un modèle centré sur la communauté Le projet Open Cities repose sur le principe de la gestion locale des données : les responsables municipaux et communautaires ont leur mot à dire pour décider de ce qui sera ajouté sur une carte ; les jeunes reçoivent des outils pour collecter et valider les informations ; et les collectivités ont un droit d’accès, d’utilisation et d’appropriation des données qui les concernent. Cette stratégie améliore le modèle de données — en intégrant notamment des caractéristiques importantes pour les femmes et les groupes marginalisés dans les séries de données — et donne aux parties prenantes des outils pour exiger de leurs gouvernements des services urbains. Les autorités locales disposent quant à elles d’un moyen d’améliorer leurs investissements. Des femmes du quartier de Tchiniambi à Pointe-Noire (Congo) discutent des effets du changement climatique à l’échelle locale. Photo : Anne Marie Tiani.Des enfants examinent une carte de leur quartier à Zanzibar. Photo : Primož Kova La technologie pour bâtir un avenir meilleur Les pouvoirs publics peuvent collaborer avec les habitants pour recueillir des informations par téléphone, appareil photo ou drone, qui pourront être exploitées dans un large éventail de secteurs. Dans le cadre du projet Open Cities à Niamey (Niger), un partenariat avec une start-up locale a débouché sur l’utilisation d’images aériennes prises avec un drone pour modéliser les risques de crue et concevoir des systèmes d’alerte précoce. Lancement d’un drone à Ngaoundéré (Cameroun). Photo : Michel Tchotsoua/ACAGER. Malgré le renforcement continu de la communauté OpenStreetMap, la demande de données risque de dépasser les capacités humaines mobilisées. Open Cities Africa considère une utilisation responsable de l’apprentissage automatique pour accélérer les relevés cartographiques. L’union de la cartographie communautaire et de l’intelligence artificielle (a) peut permettre aux responsables publics de trouver de meilleures solutions aux défis urbains. De modestes investissements pilotes à fort impact Les projets pilotes menés dans le cadre d’Open Cities Africa ont permis de réunir des données sur les risques qui ont servi à orienter plus de 150 millions de dollars d’investissements dans les infrastructures urbaines et TIC. À Zanzibar, une infrastructure de données géographiques servira de référentiel pour la gestion urbaine et des risques de catastrophe. À Antananarivo (Madagascar), plus de 100 kilomètres de réseaux de drainage ont été cartographiés, apportant des éléments concrets aux projets de protection contre les crues et de réhabilitation des zones urbaines. De leur côté, les habitants de Ngaoundéré (Cameroun) se réunissent désormais une fois par semaine pour accomplir les activités de nettoyage lancées dans le cadre du projet Open Cities. Les zones inondables à Zanzibar. Carte établie par Spatial Collective. Les données fournies par OpenStreetMap ont convaincu les autorités de se doter d’un plan de gestion des risques. Elles ont montré que de nombreux quartiers pouvaient être inondés.Sell Abdulla Al-JabriArchitecte au ministère de l’aménagement du territoire, du logement, de l’eau et de l’énergie de Zanzibar (Tanzanie) L’avenir du numérique au service d’un redressement durable Alors que la communauté OpenStreetMap redouble d’efforts, les équipes de la Région Afrique à la Banque mondiale s’emploient à développer les compétences numériques des jeunes pour développer ces activités non seulement dans les services urbains, mais aussi dans d’autres domaines, à l’instar du suivi environnemental ou des pratiques agricoles. Pour en savoir plus, découvrez l’initiative Open Cities. (a) L’initiative Open Cities Africa a vu le jour grâce au soutien du programme de l’Union européenne pour le financement contre les risques de catastrophe en Afrique (ADRF) et, dans un certain nombre de villes, aux fonds apportés par d’autres bailleurs de fonds. Cliquez ici pour consulter le rapport final des projets financés par l’ADRF. VOIR AUSSI Banque mondiale Rapport Final d’Open Cities AfricaComment combler l’écart numérique entre les sexes : l’exemple d’Open Cities AfricaComprendre les risques d’inondation à Niamey grâce à la cartographie open source, aux drones et à la modélisationBrazzaville : sécuriser les quartiers pauvres grâce à la cartographique participativeD’autres histoires de l’initiative Villes Ouvertes d’Afrique BBC Finding the ‘invisible’ millions who are not on maps

African communities are closing the digital map gap for cities

By Vivien Deparday, Grace Doherty, Mira Gupta, and Nuala Cowan This article was originally published on World Bank Blogs. (Français) Students mapping in a neighborhood of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania). Photo: Chris Morgan/World Bank Advances in technologies like satellites and smartphones have transformed maps as we know them. The gold standard map is now digital. It is accessible – open data approaches mean that map data can be repurposed by many agencies, organizations, and communities at once. With the growth of crowdsourcing platforms like OpenStreetMap, it is even collaborative – anyone can contribute information to the map, improving upon the work of others. For public service delivery, detailed geographic data is crucial to reaching the right people, at the right time, with the right supplies. For example, rapid mapping efforts enabled public health responders to locate disease hotspots during West Africa’s Ebola outbreak, and they are being deployed again to slow COVID-19’s spread. An innovative approach to mobility by residents of Doe Community in Monrovia, Liberia. Photo: Donnish Pewee, courtesy of iLab Liberia. But there remains a problem with humanitarian maps, even today: over one billion people around the world are not on them. These are people whose homes and even entire neighborhoods are not captured by the databases that make urban services possible. Digital Mappers Build Resilience in Africa Data about the built environment – such as the construction material of buildings and roads or capacity of drainage networks – are intimately familiar to marginalized communities but often difficult for governments to monitor. It is up to governments to work with their citizens to fill this digital map gap. The World Bank and the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) have been working with the OpenStreetMap community since the 2010 Haiti earthquake, bringing a diverse global network of people together to respond and prepare for disaster risk. To-date, OpenStreetMap contributors have mapped more than 600 million points on the African continent alone. Sub-Saharan Africa’s urban areas are among the world’s least mapped and most vulnerable; many of the poorest neighborhoods are located in low-lying areas disconnected from the main urban fabric. Through the Open Cities Africa program, municipal governments work with local universities, NGOs, and community members to collect detailed geographic data for a more resilient future. Open Cities field mappers in Accra, Ghana. Photo: Stephen Mawutor Donkor/CC-BY-SA 4.0. Since 2018, Open Cities Africa teams have trained more than 500 urban residents, students, and civil servants to gather data on risk, mapping over one million roads, markets, hospitals, canals, and other features onto OpenStreetMap. A Community-Centered Model Open Cities is grounded in the principle of local data stewardship, meaning municipal and community leadership have a voice in deciding what goes on the map; local youth are equipped to collect and validate data; and communities can access, use, and take ownership over the data collected about them. This approach improves the design of the data model – such as making datasets more inclusive of features important to women and marginalized groups – and gives constituents the resources to lobby their government for urban services. In turn, it equips local governments to improve investments. Women of Tchiniambi neighborhood in Pointe-Noire, Congo discuss the local impacts of climate change. Photo by Anne Marie Tiani.Children inspect a map of their neighborhood in Zanzibar. Photo by Primož Kovačič, Spatial Collective. Tech for a Better Tomorrow Governments can work with residents to use phones, cameras, and drones to inform a range of sectors. In the Open Cities project in Niamey, Niger, a partnership with a local startup led to the use of drone aerial images to model flood risk and develop early warning systems. An open field drone launch in Ngaoundéré, Cameroon. Photo by Michel Tchotsoua, ACAGER. Even as the OpenStreetMap community grows, demand for data can outpace human mobilization. Open Cities Africa explores the use of responsible machine learning to accelerate mapping. When community mapping meets artificial intelligence, we can improve how government leaders address urban challenges. Small Pilot Investments Lead to Large Impacts The Open Cities Africa pilot projects have produced risk data that now informs more than $150M in urban and ICT infrastructure investments. In Zanzibar, a Spatial Data Infrastructure will serve as a repository for urban and disaster risk management. In Antananarivo, Madagascar, over 100 kilometers of mapped drainage will inform flood protection and urban upgrading projects. Meanwhile community members in Ngaoundéré, Cameroon now meet once a week for neighborhood cleanup activities launched by the Open Cities project. Flooding impacts in Zanzibar. Map by Spatial Collective. The data from OpenStreetMap has convinced our government authority to conduct a risk management plan. The data has proven that there are many settlements that are affected by floods.Sell Abdulla Al-JabriArchitect for the Ministry of Land, Housing, Water and Energy of Zanzibar, Tanzania As the OpenStreetMap community expands efforts, the World Bank’s Africa region is facilitating youth digital skill development to scale this work for urban services, environmental monitoring, agricultural practices, and more. To learn more about this unique opportunity, reach out to Open Cities. Open Cities Africa is made possible by funding through the European Union’s Africa Disaster Risk Financing (ADRF) program and additional funding sources in select cities. Access the final report for the ADRF-funded program here. RELATED World Bank Open Cities Africa Final ReportHow to Close the Digital Gender Gap: Lessons from Open Cities AfricaWhen community mapping meets artificial intelligenceUnderstanding Niamey’s flood risk through open source mapping, drones, and modelingHow participatory mapping can make Brazzaville’s poor neighborhoods saferThe rise of local mapping communitiesOther stories from Open Cities Africa BBC Finding the ‘invisible’ millions who are not on maps

projects

Open Cities Africa

Carried out in 11 cities in Sub-Saharan Africa to engage local government, civil society, and the private sector to develop the information infrastructures necessary to meet 21st century urban resilience challenges. The project is implemented through a unique partnership between GFDRR and the World Bank, city governments across the continent, and a partner community comprised of regional scientific and technology organizations, development partners, and technology companies. WEBSITE COUNTERPARTSCITIES opencitiesproject.org National and Provincial Ministries, Municipal Offices and Local Development Committees ACCRA, Ghana ANTANANARIVO, Madagascar BRAZZAVILLE, Republic of Congo KAMPALA, Uganda KINSHASA, Democratic Republic of Congo MONROVIA, Liberia NGAOUNDÉRÉ, Cameroon NIAMEY, Niger POINTE-NOIRE, Republic of Congo SAINT-LOUIS, Senegal SEYCHELLES ZANZIBAR CITY, Tanzania Overview As urban populations and vulnerability grow, managing urban growth in a way that fosters cities’ resilience to natural hazards and the impacts of climate change becomes a greater challenge that requires detailed, up-to-date geographic data of the built environment. Addressing this challenge requires innovative, open, and dynamic data collection and mapping processes that support management of urban growth and disaster risk. Success is often contingent on local capacities and networks to maintain and utilize risk information, enabling policy environments to support effective data management and sharing, and targeted tools that can help translate data into meaningful action. Building on the success of the global Open Data for Resilience Initiative, its work on Open Cities projects in South Asia, and GFDRR’s Code for Resilience, Open Cities Africa is carried out in 11 cities in Sub-Saharan Africa to engage local government, civil society, and the private sector to develop the information infrastructures necessary to meet 21st century urban resilience challenges. Following an application process, a small team of mappers, technologists, designers, and risk experts in each of the selected cities receive funding, targeted training, technical support, and mentorship throughout the year of work to: i) create and/or compile open spatial data on the built environment, critical infrastructure, and natural hazards; ii) develop targeted systems and tools to assist key stakeholders to utilize risk information; and iii) support local capacity-building and institutional development necessary for designing and implementing evidence-driven urban resilience interventions. Phases of Implementation 1. Plan and Assess In the first phase, Open Cities teams establish what data already exists and its openness, relevance and value. Project target area and data to collect are finalized. This phase is also when teams identify project partners and stakeholders to ensure that efforts are a participatory process. At the Open Cities Kick Off Meeting, teams meet with Open Cities leadership and the other Open Cities teams in their cohort and receive training on project components. 2. Map In this second phase, teams roll out the findings and data capture strategy developed in the first phase to address critical data gaps relevant to their specific Problem Statements. On the ground, teams coordinate field data collection according to the approach developed and agreed upon in consultation with project stakeholders. Depending on needs, tools for data collection may include smartphones or tablets, drones for the collection of high resolution imagery, or handheld GPS. As the project team is training team members to collect data for the project, efforts are made to develop, and/or strengthen the local OpenStreetMap community within the selected city working in partnership with local stakeholders. Project teams may hold trainings, mapathons, or community town halls in coordination with a local university, NGO or government counterparts. 3. Design In this third phase of the project, teams use the data collected in the Map Phase to design a tool or product to communicate the data to their stakeholders to support decision-making. Products vary widely depending on city context and may include a database and visualization tool, an atlas, a map series, or a mobile application. 4. Develop and Present In the final phase of the project, teams develop their tools/products and share results with targeted end user populations and other relevant stakeholders. Once final products are shared, teams work with project mentors and Open Cities Africa leadership to establish a sustainability plan and to explore opportunities for expansion or extension. This could include convening meetings with the World Bank, government counterparts, or the nongovernmental organization and donor communities. It may also include the development of concept notes, proposals or additional user research. Learn More More information about the project and team activities can be found on the Open Cities Africa site.

Niger

In Niger, the World Bank is supporting the Government reduce the vulnerability of populations at risk of flooding, while taking into account the requirements of community development and capacity building of national structures both at central and local level. DATA SHARING PLATFORM http://risques-niger.org   COUNTERPART PGCR-DU (Projet de Gestion des Risques de Catastrophes et de Développement Urbain – Disaster Risk Management and Urban Development Project) NUMBER OF GEONODE LAYERS39 Understanding Niger’s Risks Despite its semi-arid climate, Niger is regularly stricken by floods that destroy housing, infrastructure and croplands everywhere in the country. While flood damages usually occur in the vicinity of permanent water bodies such as the Niger and Komadougou rivers, more and more damages and casualties have been reported as linked to intense precipitations and runoff in urban areas. Despite the recurrent losses, little is known about the number of people who are living in flood-prone areas or the value of properties at risk. Furthermore, the vast majority of stations in the meteorological and hydrological collection network does not have the ability to transmit data in real-time and therefore cannot be fully exploited in emergency situations. Collecting Data With the support of the World Bank, the PGRC-DU is supporting the Nigerien Ministry of water and sanitation to retrofit the hydrometric station network with new water level gauges with real-time data transmission capability. The new gauges will make hydrometric data collection more efficient and more reliable while allowing for a faster detection of flood risk. At the same time, the PGRC-DU is funding the collection of critical socio-economic information and building characteristics in all areas of Niamey (the capital of Niger) that are deemed vulnerable to floods. UAVs are being used to acquire high-resolution images of potentially flooded areas that would help better identify buildings characteristics and develop a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) with 10cm vertical resolution, which will help better predict water movement in the area. Sharing Data The collected hydrometric data will be available to selected users in an online portal, along with various other data sets from regional and global sources. Part of the data collected in Niamey is expected to contribute to the OpenStreetMap project. The rest of the data will be analyzed and converted into vulnerability maps and reports available to the public. Using Data It is expected that the network of real-time hydrometric stations will be used to feed a flood warning system that will provide authorities a better estimate of flood risk at any given time. The acquired DTM is being used to develop computer models that can simulate flood propagation in the city of Niamey and evaluate the effects of existing of planned flood protection infrastructures. Finally, the collected socio-economic data combined with flood simulations will provide decision-makers an accurate estimation of flood risk in terms of exposed populations and expected economic damages.

Uganda

In Uganda, the World Bank is supporting the Government to develop improved access to drought risk related information and quicken the decision of scaling up disaster risk financing (DRF) mechanisms COUNTERPART National Emergency Coordination and Operations Center (NECOC) Project Overview In the context of the third Northern Uganda Social Action Fund Project (NUSAF III), the World Bank is supporting the Government of Uganda to develop improved access to drought risk related information and quicken the decision of scaling up disaster risk financing (DRF) mechanisms. The OpenDRI team is providing technical assistance to Uganda’s National Emergency Coordination and Operations Center (NECOC) in determining requirements for collecting, storing and analyzing satellite data used for monitoring drought conditions. Understanding Uganda’s Risk In recent years Uganda has been impacted by drought, with more than 10% of the population being at risk. The northern sub-region of Karamoja is one of the most severely hit, with a consequent increase in food insecurity. Currently the Government of Uganda (GoU) faces challenges in the collection and analysis of information upon which they can base a decision to respond and mitigate such risk. Without transparent, objective and timely data, times in mobilizing and financing responses can be delayed. Collecting Data The World Bank is supporting GoU to strengthen its disaster risk management strategy and response mechanisms. The current engagement looks to develop a more systematic, robust system for collecting, storing and analyzing drought risk related information to enable GoU to make more timely decisions. By retrieving satellite data systematically, NECOC will be able to analyze current crop and vegetation conditions with historic information, and quickly detect early warning signs of drought. Uganda has a vibrant OpenStreetMap community, which has been mapping the country since 2010. A pilot community mapping project funded by GFDRR with support from the Government of Belgium, is being conducted in the city of Kampala. Sharing Data The OpenDRI team provides support and advice to GoU in developing best practices for sharing and managing risk related information. Interoperability of data sources produced by various ministries and non-government organizations is critical to ensure timely access to data by NECOC and conduct effective drought risk analysis. A geospatial data sharing platform will be deployed by GoU to facilitate exchange of such critical information and adoption of data standards. Using Data A technical committee, composed of experts from the government and partner organizations, has agreed to use a satellite derived indicator known as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as the primary dataset to inform decisions for triggering the disaster risk financing mechanism. Initially the system will be exclusively dedicated to monitoring drought risk in the northern sub-region of Karamoja. In the following years, it is expected to expand operations and cover other regions exposed to drought risk, integrating additional data sources which will become accessible thanks to improved data collection strategies and sharing mechanisms.

Zanzibar

The Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar (RGoZ) with the support of the World Bank has been developing evidence-based and innovative solutions to better plan, mitigate, and prepare for natural disasters. Zanzibar is part of the Southwest Indian Ocean Risk Assessment and Financing Initiative (SWIO RAFI) which seeks to address high vulnerability of the Southwest Indian Ocean Island States to disaster losses from catastrophes such as cyclones, floods, earthquakes and tsunamis. These threats are exacerbated by the effects of climate change, a growing population and increased economic impacts. DATA SHARING PLATFORM PROJECT PAGE ZAN SEA FACEBOOK PAGE http://zansea-geonode.org www.zanzibarmapping.org https://www.facebook.com/zansea/   Understanding Zanzibar’s Risk Zanzibar’s disaster events are mainly related to rainfall, and both severe flooding and droughts have been experienced. Sharing Data Island Map: OpenStreetMap Data collected through SWIO RAFI activities will be shared on a GeoNode. The ZanSea GeoNode currently contains 42 maps and 102 layers of geospatial data for Zanzibar. Collecting Data The Zanzibar mapping initiative is creating a high resolution map of the islands of Zanzibar and Pemba, over 2300 square km, using low-cost drones instead of satellite images or manned planes. The Zanzibar Commission for Lands will use the maps for better planning, land tenure and environmental monitoring. Data is being collected in collaboration with the RGoZ. Using Data Data collected can be used for risk assessment and planning activities.

Pacific Islands: Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu

Pacific Catastrophe Risk Assessment and Financing Initiative (PCRAFI) is a joint initiative of SOPAC/SPC, World Bank, and the Asian Development Bank with the financial support of the Government of Japan, the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) and the ACP-EU Natural Disaster Risk Reduction Programme, and technical support from AIR Worldwide, New Zealand GNS Science, Geoscience Australia, Pacific Disaster Center (PDC), OpenGeo and GFDRR Labs. DATA SHARING PLATFORM http://pcrafi.spc.int/beta/ NUMBER OF LAYERS 522 Understanding Risks in Pacific Island Countries The Pacific Island Countries are highly exposed to the adverse effects of climate change and natural hazards, which can result in disasters affecting their economic, human, and physical environment and impacting their long-term development agenda. Since 1950, natural disasters have affected approximately 9.2 million people in the Pacific Region, causing 9,811 reported deaths. Sharing Data throughout the Pacific Islands Launched in December 2011, the Pacific Risk Information System enhances management and sharing of geospatial data within the Pacific community. The system enables the creation of a dynamic online community around risk data by piloting the integration of social web features with geospatial data management. Exposure, hazard, and risk maps for 15 Pacific Countries were produced as part of the Pacific Catastrophe Risk Assessment and Financing Initiative (PCRAFI) 2 and are accessible through this platform as powerful visual tools for informing decision-makers, facilitating communication and education on disaster risk management. Thumbnail Image by Samoa Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade licensed under CC BY 2.0

Sri Lanka

The Disaster Management Centre of Sri Lanka (DMC) with the support of the World Bank has been developing the Open Data for Resilience Initiative (OpenDRI) to support evidence-based methods to better plan for, mitigate, and respond to natural disasters. COUNTERPART Disaster Management Centre, Ministry of Disaster Management NUMBER OF BUILDINGS MAPPED 130,564 with 8 attributes each ROADS MAPPED >1000 km   Understanding Sri Lanka’s Risks Since 2000, flood and drought events have cumulatively affected more than 13 million people across Sri Lanka. Regular flooding, drought, and landslides are natural hazards that threaten the long-term growth and development of the country. In Sri Lanka, nearly $500 million in unplanned expenditures resulting from flooding in 2010 and 2011 has strained government budgets and required reallocation from other planned development priorities. The impacts of these events are growing due to increased development and climate change, both of which put more assets at risk. Sharing Data To enable better disaster risk modeling, the Government of Sri Lanka partnered with GFDRR, UNDP and OCHA on the development of an OpenDRI program in November 2012. This branch of the initiative focused on the South Asia Region and was dubbed the Open Cities project. A component of the OpenDRI Open Cities mission in Sri Lanka was to collate data around hazards and exposure and prepare them to be uploaded into a GeoNode which serves as a disaster risk information platform. Working with the DMC, the National Survey Department, Department of the Census and Statistics, Nation Building Research Organization, Information and Communication Technology Agency, Department of Irrigation, several universities and the international partners, the OpenDRI team supported DMC with the aggregation of data that had been stored in static PDFs, old paper maps and several databases onto the GeoNode. The data on the GeoNode is currently available to authorized users in the OpenDRI network, in preparation for launch. This transitional state is typical for open data projects, as the partnership reviews data with the parties and affirms that it is ready for release to the open public. Some layers may restrict access only to authorized users. Collecting Data The project has also built technical capacity and awareness in Sri Lanka through training sessions on open data and crowdsourced mapping in Batticaloa city and Gampaha District. As a result of the Open Data for Resilience Initiative, government and academic volunteers have mapped over 130,000 buildings and 1000 kilometers of roadways on the crowdsourced OpenStreetMap database. This enables the country to plan ahead and be prepared for future disaster and climate risks. It also helps planning during disaster responses: the data was used to assess flooding impacts in real time and direct government resources during the May 2016 floods in Gampaha district.

resources

At OpenDRI we are committed to increasing information that can empower individuals and their governments to reduce risk to natural hazards and climate change in their communities. We’ve compiled a database of relevant resources to share what we have learned through our own projects and from the work of others.

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