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Kinshasa en lutte contre les inondations grâce aux données libres d’accès

Auteurs: Elena NDINGA; Michel NGOY; Cédric SINGA; Victor KADIATA; Serge KALAWU; Lise-Olga MAKONGA; Eric LUTETE; André MAZINGA; Eddy BONGWELE; et Landing MANE: Observatoire Sattelital des Forêts d’Afrique Centrale (OSFAC); Yves BARTHELEMY: OpenDRI. La métropole centrafricaine de Kinshasa (RDC), abrite aujourd’hui plus de 12 millions d’habitants et s’étend sur des vastes zones de faible altitude ou à flanc de collines souvent soumises à l’érosion et touchées par les inondations, en particulier dans les quartiers de Kisenso et Matete. Pour réduire ces risques naturels, la ville de Kinshasa met en œuvre le Projet Open Cities Africa dont l’objectif est de mettre à disposition des décideurs des informations sur les catastrophes naturelles et sur les infrastructures exposées sur le terrain (habitations, axes routiers, canalisations) sous forme d’atlas cartographiques au format papier ou interactifs ainsi que des applications mobiles cartographiques. Figure 1. Les mappeurs de terrain utilisent des applications mobiles pour collecter des données sur l’exposition dans les communes de Kisenso et Matete. Crédit photo: © OSFAC Ces informations, basées pour la première fois sur des outils libres et des données libres d’accès, vont permettre nous permettre d’intervenir plus efficacement en cas d’inondations ou de phénomènes d’érosion dans la métropole de Kinshasa, et augmenter ainsi la résilience des quartiers les plus vulnérables. Le Projet Open Cities vient appuyer le Projet de Développement Urbain et de Résilience de Kinshasa (PDURK) mis en œuvre par le Gouvernement provincial – Ministère de l’Urbanisme. Open Cities Kinshasa est porté par une équipe pluridisciplinaire qui réunit des membres de l’Observatoire Satellital des Forêts d’Afrique Centrale (www.osfac.net), de Potentiel 3.0, des représentants des Ministères du Plan et de l’Urbanisme, de géographes et agronomes de l’Université de Kinshasa et des membres de la société civile. Depuis le démarrage du projet, de très nombreuses activités ont été organisées par l’équipe Open Cities Kinshasa : Atelier de lancement d’Open Cities Kinshasa pour informer tous les partenaires du projet (photos) ; collecte des données disponibles auprès des différents partenaires (le bâti, les infrastructures et les données de risques naturels) ; des séances de formation sur l’utilisation des outils de collecte des données ont été organisée, des séances de digitalisation des données relatives aux infrastructures les plus critiques ont été organisées en s’appuyant sur la plate-forme OSM (www.openstreetmap.org). Figure 2. Mme PAY PAY, chef du quartier DELAPAIX (Commune de KISENSO), s’exprimant lors d’un échange  avec l’équipe du projet en Novembre 2019. Open Cities Kinshasa a réuni plus d’une dizaine d’organisations du gouvernement ou de la société civile depuis son démarrage. Crédit photo: © OSFAC Les communautés locales des quartiers les plus touchés ont été associées tout au long de la mise en œuvre pour s’assurer de la pertinence des données à collecter. Afin de travailler sur des données aériennes à jour, de haute résolution spatiale et libres de droit, deux campagnes de survol par Drones ont été effectuées sur les zones les plus fréquemment touchées par les inondations. Après quelques mois seulement, ce projet a permis de cartographier une superficie d’environ 20 km² soit l’intégralité de la zone du projet. Figure 3. Open Cities Kinshasa a cartographié plus de 55 000 bâtiments des quartiers de Kisenso et Matete dans OpenStreetMap. Les données collectées sont disponibles en visitant le site www.opencitiesproject.org/kinshasa. Toutes les données collectées dans le cadre du projet Open Cities Kinshasa seront mises à la disposition des Autorités administratives de la ville de Kinshasa (Ministère provincial du Plan et Ministère de l’Urbanisme et Habitat) via le site web de OSM (www.openstreetmap.org ou téléchargement direct : opencitiesproject.org/kinshasa) et de l’OSFAC (www.osfac.net). Au-delà des données créées et mises à disposition de tous les acteurs, ce projet a permis de former plus de 220 personnes à la cartographie participative dont une cinquantaine de femmes. Kinshasa ne souhaite pas s’arrêter là et dans les mois qui viennent, nous allons continuer à cartographier les autres quartiers les plus touchés. Open Cities Kinshasa bénéficie du soutien de Climate Risk and Early Warning Systems (CREWS) et du programme ACP-UE Renforcer les capacités de résilience face aux catastrophes en Afrique subsaharienne (ACP-UE ADRF) financé par l’UE, géré par la Facilité mondiale pour la prévention des risques de catastrophes et le relèvement (GFDRR). L’initiative CREWS a pour objectif d’accroître de manière significative la capacité de générer et de communiquer des alertes précoces et des informations de risque efficaces, axées sur les impacts, multirisques, tenant compte des spécificités liées au genre, afin de protéger des vies, des moyens de subsistance et des actifs dans les pays les moins avancés (PMA) et petits États insulaires en développement.

Balkans and Risk: The State of Open Data for DRM

Author: Pierre Chrzanowski, Open Data Specialist at OpenDRI. Co-author: Charles Christonikos, Risk Research Consultant at OpenDRI Despite the volume of climate and disaster risk data available for the Balkan countries, critical gaps remain. To improve understanding of natural hazard risk in the Balkans, efforts are being made at both local and global levels to track the state of open disaster risk management (DRM) data in the region and identify critical datasets. The Open Data for Resilience Index is a platform to track and evaluate open data for DRM and enables anyone to submit exposure, hazard, vulnerability, and baseline data for a given country. Each data set is then assessed against 10 open data criteria to determine how easily it can be downloaded and reused. The Index serves as a common resource for DRM practitioners, governments, and other stakeholders to reduce gaps in data for hazard-prone locations. Figure 1: Europe and Central Asia, ranked on the Index by open, restricted, closed and unknown datasets pertaining to disaster risk management. According to Stella Karafagka, who conducted an inventory of data sets for Balkan countries, much of the essential DRM data has restricted access or does not exist. Slovenia, however, stands out from this trend. It is the only Balkan country that has published most of its key datasets openly. For instance, Slovenian building data is available to download and reuse without restrictions, as shown in Figure 2. The Index also reveals that despite the frequency of extreme weather events in the region, most of the countries have not released open meteorological data. One explanation for this data lock may be traditional funding mechanisms which require hydrometeorological agencies to fund themselves and sell their data. Slovenia is the only Balkan country that has published most of its key datasets openly. Additional results show that restricted terms of use, lack of open licenses, and difficulty in downloading raw data are among the main issues preventing data reuse. Tracking disaster data through the Index is an ongoing, crowdsourced process, where any contribution is welcome. Figure 2: Map of building footprints in Slovenia processed on QGIS software. Credit: Surveying and Mapping Authority of the Republic of Slovenia. Case studies from government and journalism are an opportunity to explore initiatives and projects addressing risk data gaps in the Balkans. Government The European Union (EU)-funded Programme for Disaster Risk Management and Mapping (IPA DRAM) is a partnership between national civil protection agencies. IPA DRAM supports Balkan countries in collecting and better utilizing disaster loss data. One of IPA DRAM’s main deliverables will be a global disaster loss database that leverages EU and Sendai disaster risk reduction frameworks to promote data harmonization between countries. The program also provides support for risk assessment and mapping. Stefania Traverso, a GIS specialist from the CIMA Research Foundation and an IPA DRAM expert, commented on the need to raise awareness at all levels about the issues of data availability and interoperability. Traverso also stressed the need for civil protection agencies to work together toward common data frameworks, and use common resources wherever possible. Civil protection agencies need to cooperate on data availability and interoperability, work together toward common data frameworks, and where possible use common resources. Journalism Georgiana Ilie, a reporter and senior editor at the Romanian magazine DoR, described the role of journalists in addressing disasters and how data gaps can hamper their work. Ilie’s investigation into the outcomes of an earthquake hitting Bucharest took several months due to the lack of publicly accessible information in Romania. Yet her resulting story, “Earthquake in the Vulnerable City” (Ilie 2017), exemplifies how journalism can entertain and educate citizens about DRM. The data used for the publication included an incomplete list of buildings at risk provided by the city, hazard data from the National Institute of Earth Physics (INFP), and various reports from the World Bank and other international organizations. A comprehensive database of buildings, however, was missing, in addition to information on shelter locations, safe open places, and evacuation plans. All of these missing data would be essential to share and publicize in the event of an earthquake. Challenges Access to open disaster and climate data for Balkan countries is challenging for several reasons: Restricted access: Despite national open data initiatives, the EU directive on open government data (PSI [Public Sector Information] Directive), and the directive on environmental and geospatial data (INSPIRE [Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community] Directive, most key datasets in the Balkan countries remain under restricted access. Building data: The volume of crucial building data under closed or restricted access is worryingly high. Download: Although geospatial data is becoming increasingly available through web services, the lack of directly downloadable raw data remains a constraint to conducting risk analysis.  Interoperability: Regional collaboration and scaleup of DRM projects are impeded by the lack of interoperability and standardization between data sets. Recommendations Focus on bottlenecks: Preliminary results from the Open Data for Resilience Index suggest that those who utilize DRM data in the Balkans would benefit from sharing their findings through the Index in an ongoing, collective process. Focus should be given to key data bottlenecks, such as building data. Government and civil society collaboration: The number of open data activities in the Balkans at both the government level (in Bulgaria, Croatia, Serbia, and Slovenia) and by civil society organizations is increasing. Ongoing initiatives should focus on data for resilience and ensure that key data sets are released openly. These teams should collaborate and work more closely with DRM stakeholders, such as national civil protection agencies. Journalism as open data advocates: As extreme weather events in the Balkans intensify, journalists should play a larger role in investigating the types of data needed to cover natural hazard and climate change stories, and advocate for greater access to public sector information. Frameworks, guidelines, and support related to open data for DRM offered by the EU and international organizations such as the World Bank should be used by Balkan countries to identify financial resources, peer-to-peer knowledge exchange, and common resources and tools. Web services: To combat restricted or limited access, data publishers should make greater use of web services to provide full open data and directly downloadable raw data sets. Special thanks to Georgiana Ilie, DoR magazine, Romania; Maryia Markhvida, Stanford Urban Resilience Initiative and World Bank; Stefania Traverso, CIMA Research Foundation and IPA DRAM; and Stella Karafagka, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki for their participation in the 2018 Understanding Risk Balkans Conference session, The State of Open Data for DRM in the Balkans.

A Brazzaville, la population se met en marche pour cartographier les risques

Auteurs : Martin Massouangui-Kifouala, Profesor – Climatologist, Université Marien Ngouabi ; Benjamin Michelon, Urban Planner, Groupe Huit ; Pierre-Gilles Saby, Coordination, Groupe Huit ; et Yves Barthelemy, Consultant, OpenDRI Brazzaville, capitale du Congo, a été sélectionnée pour faire partie du projet Open Cities for Africa, qui consiste à cartographier les risques naturels de façon participative et à sensibiliser les élus et les habitants des agglomérations urbaines. Il vise à proposer une méthode participative et innovante de collecte de données dans les quartiers identifiés par le Programme de Développement Urbain des Quartiers Précaires (DUrQuaP), soit Moukoundzi-Ngouaka (Arrondissement de Makélékélé) et Soukissa (Arrondissement de Ouenzé). L’initiative se révèle très pertinente pour cette ville où l’urbanisation s’est faite depuis les années 60 sans respecter un véritable plan et au gré des opportunités foncières. En conséquence aujourd’hui, les quartiers précaires sans eau, ni électricité, ni réseaux d’assainissement, qui couvrent 60% de la zone urbaine de Brazzaville, sont aussi les plus exposés aux aléas climatiques. Comme dans d’autres villes congolaises, les relevés météorologiques de Brazzaville indiquent en effet une baisse des précipitations totales et une hausse de leur intensité ; il en résulte des journées extrêmement humides de plus en plus fréquentes, où des fortes pluies provoquent dans les quartiers collinaires du nord de la ville des glissements de terrain et des phénomènes érosifs considérables et, ailleurs, des inondations. Open Cities à Brazzaville s’est focalisé sur les quartiers de Moukoundzi-Ngouaka et de Soukissa : le premier, cosmopolite, où résident environ 20 000 personnes et se trouvent TV, Radio Congo et l’école française ; le deuxième réunissant environ 30 000 habitants principalement autour du ‘marché moderne’ construit en 1982 aujourd’hui dans un état de dégradation avancé. A Moukoundzi-Ngouaka, les sols argileux facilitent l’écoulement de l’eau en cas de pente mais diminuent son absorption sur des sols plats ; à Soukissa, les sols sableux facilitent l’absorption et l’infiltration des eaux sur les surfaces planes mais entraînent de l’érosion sur les pentes, avec pour conséquence l’ensablement de la rivière Tsiémé et des parcelles agricoles situées à proximité. Dégradation des routes (Avenue Boueta Mbongo à Ouenzé). © Marien Ngouabi Ces problèmes physiques associés au manque cruel d’infrastructures publiques, de réseaux d’assainissement et de drainage ont poussé les autorités de la ville à en faire la cible du projet Open Cities : aux deux endroits une trentaine de personnes (chefs de quartiers, habitants, membres du Comité de Développement Local) se sont réunies à chaque fois autour d’un atelier participatif pour recueillir les observations des citoyens, discuter des enjeux environnementaux, et définir un modèle de données à utiliser dans les cartes qui seront produites. Mais la nouveauté de la démarche à Brazzaville réside dans l’organisation de marches exploratoires avec la population. Dans les deux quartiers les habitants, munis d’un plan en papier et suivant un itinéraire choisi par eux-mêmes, ont arpenté les rues afin de marquer les points d’attention ou d’inquiétude relatifs aux risques naturels. Localisation de Moukoundzi-Ngouaka et de Soukissa dans Brazzaville Moukoundzi-Ngouaka, un carrefour des cultures à Brazzaville Le quartier de Moukoundzi-Ngouaka dans l’arrondissement de Makélékélé, a attiré beaucoup de population rurale, qui venait chercher du travail suite à la construction du premier aéroport congolais.   Parmi les nouveaux arrivants, on comptait des populations venues du Gabon et du Tchad, mais également nombre d’anciens tirailleurs de l’Oubangui Chari, aujourd’hui République Centrafricaine, appartenant à la communauté des Ngouakas. C’est ainsi que les trois villages formant à l’origine Saint-Michel prirent le nom de Moukoundzi-Ngouaka qui veut dire en langue Kongo le chef des Ngouakas. Du fait de sa proximité avec la cité coloniale, le Quartier de Moukoundzi-Ngouaka a vu s’installer de nombreuses infrastructures d’importance dont les bâtiments du Bureau Minier du Congo (BUMICO), qui abriteront par la suite la nouvelle Faculté des Sciences de l’université de Brazzaville, l’imprimerie nationale depuis 1905, l’Institut Géographique, et plus récemment la TV et la Radio Congo ainsi que l’Ecole française Saint Exupéry. Avec aujourd’hui une population estimée à près de 20 000 habitants[1], c’est un quartier ouvert et cosmopolite qui s’est développé sans planification véritable : les voiries de Moukoundzi-Ngouaka sont en partie devenues impraticables et souffrent d’obstacles de différente nature : encombrement par les ordures ménagères, nids de poule, mauvais drainage conduisant à l’engorgement en eau durant la saison des pluies, manque de réseaux de gestion des eaux pluviales (tels que les caniveaux) et de gestion des déchets (manque de poubelles). A noter que le sol du quartier est en partie argileux, ce qui facilite l’écoulement en cas de pente mais diminue l’absorption sur des sols plats. Marche exploratoire à Soukissa. © Marien Ngouabi Soukissa, quartier adjacent à l’aéroport s’est développé autour de son marché Le recueil des données et la démarche participative Un premier événement a été organisé durant la semaine du 15 octobre dans les quartiers, après le lancement officiel du projet impliquant la Mairie de Brazzaville. Cet évènement mettant à l’honneur la cartographie participative s’est effectué en deux temps principaux : un atelier participatif suivi d’une marche exploratoire. Le format du focus-group a permis de donner la parole à des personnes qui en sont souvent privées. Dans chacun des deux quartiers, trois ateliers ont ainsi été organisés : l’un rassemblant les hommes, le second les femmes et le troisième les jeunes du quartier. Fin de la marche exploratoire des femmes à Moukoundzi-Ngouaka. © Marien Ngouabi Des questionnaires conçus par l’équipe du projet ont permis d’établir un fil rouge à dérouler et à enrichir pendant la discussion. Ils avaient pour objectif de recueillir en amont les principaux enjeux existants quant au changement climatique afin de proposer des premiers éléments de discussion pendant les ateliers. Les parties prenantes au projet (Chefs de quartier, habitants) ont été impliquées très directement et formellement dans l’organisation de ces ateliers. Les Comités de Développement Locaux, véritables unités opérationnelles de mise en œuvre du projet DUrQuaP dans les deux quartiers par la sélection des participants, la facilitation de l’accès à une salle à l’intérieur du quartier, mais également à l’accompagnement lors des marches exploratoires. L’ensemble des participants (30 au total par quartier) habitait dans le quartier où l’atelier était organisé, soit Moukoundzi-Ngouaka et Soukissa. Les ateliers ont eu lieu dans les deux quartiers. De nombreuses thématiques ont été abordées par les participants : il s’avérait important de canaliser le flux de réflexions qui ont émergé des discussions afin de la concentrer sur les effets du changement climatique sur le milieu où vivent les hommes. Les problématiques d’inondation, d’érosion et d’ensablement des sols faisaient partie du contenu des ateliers. Ces enjeux, dont certains avaient été en amont anticipés par l’équipe du projet, ont servi à la constitution d’un modèle de données qui sera utilisé pour la cartographie de terrain. Atelier des hommes à Soukissa. © Marien Ngouabi Femmes de la marche exploratoire à Soukissa. © Marien Ngouabi A la suite directe des ateliers, des marches exploratoires ont été initiées dans les deux quartiers pour spatialiser les problèmes évoqués lors des ateliers. Les habitants arpentent ainsi les rues munis d’un plan papier du quartier et localisent des zones problématiques. Les itinéraires des marches exploratoires sont choisis par les participants eux-mêmes.  Le respect de cette méthodologie a été garanti par l’accompagnement par l’équipe du projet des participants aux six ateliers (à raison de 3 par quartier) pendant l’intégralité des marches exploratoires. Sur la base de ces marches exploratoires, les données ont été centralisées par le département de géographie de l’Université Marien Ngouabi et les cartes sont en cours d’élaboration… A suivre donc ! Photographe : Marien Ngouabi, University of Brazzaville Open Cities Africa is financed by the EU-funded ACP-EU Africa Disaster Risk Financing Program, and the implementation of the DURQuaP is supported by the ACP-EU Natural Disaster Risk Reduction Program, both managed by the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery. More information on the ACP-EU NDRR Program and the support it provides to the Republic of Congo can be found here. [1] Estimations 2016

GFDRR invites you to celebrate International Open Data Day

Field mappers collect exposure data in Kinshasa, DRC for the Open Cities Africa project. Photo credit: © OSFAC Taking place on Saturday March 2nd is the 9th annual International Open Data Day, a community led event celebrating and promoting free access to information around the world. Are you running or participating in an Open Data Day event? GFDRR is offering you tools and resources to focus on Open Data for Resilience to help your community reduce its vulnerability to natural hazards and adapt to climate change. Open Data and GFDRR The Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) is a multi-donor trust fund helping high-risk, low-income countries to better understand and reduce their vulnerability to natural hazards and adapt to climate change. Since 2011 and the launch of the Open Data for Resilience Initiative (OpenDRI), GFDRR has put open data at the heart of its strategy. This includes support in the collecting, sharing and use of disaster risk data. What can you do for Open Data Day? The Labs of GFDRR and OpenDRI have been developing tools, methodologies and knowledge material to help apply the concept of open data to disaster risk management and climate change adaptation. As part of Open Data Day, we invite you to access and re-use those products and share them with anyone interested in Open Data for Resilience. Get an introduction on how to apply open data for disaster risk management or climate change adaptation projects by reading our OpenDRI Field Guide.Measure the availability of disaster risk data in your country with the OpenDRI Index, an online tool anyone can contribute to. We are especially interested in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) that are highly vulnerable to climate change and for which very little is known in terms of data gaps.Design and plan an Open City Mapping project to collect missing exposure data such as building footprints, health or education facilities and use them to improve the resilience of your city. This methodology has been successfully applied in 15 cities in Asia and Africa.Deploy and run an open source Geonode platform to share disaster risk data online.Learn and discuss about risks of natural hazard in your area with ThinkHazard!Join our Understanding Risk community, connect with local experts through our dedicated events, and read summary of our latest UR sessions on open data. Meeting with OpenDRI team on Open Data Day OpenDRI experts in open data technologies and disaster risk management will be participating in local Open Data Day events. Vivien Deparday will be in Niamey, Niger to prepare activities on aerial imagery acquisition through the use of drones, community mapping, app competition, and the development of an innovation space in the city of Niamey to sustain the impact of these activities.Pierre Chrzanowski will participate in the Open Data Day Burkina Faso event in Ouagadougou whose thematic will be Open Data for Urban Flooding. Register at: https://goo.gl/hKSXPR. Come find us! Email opendri@gfdrr.org to get in touch.

projects

Open Cities Africa

Carried out in 11 cities in Sub-Saharan Africa to engage local government, civil society, and the private sector to develop the information infrastructures necessary to meet 21st century urban resilience challenges. The project is implemented through a unique partnership between GFDRR and the World Bank, city governments across the continent, and a partner community comprised of regional scientific and technology organizations, development partners, and technology companies. WEBSITE COUNTERPARTSCITIES opencitiesproject.org National and Provincial Ministries, Municipal Offices and Local Development Committees ACCRA, Ghana ANTANANARIVO, Madagascar BRAZZAVILLE, Republic of Congo KAMPALA, Uganda KINSHASA, Democratic Republic of Congo MONROVIA, Liberia NGAOUNDÉRÉ, Cameroon POINTE-NOIRE, Republic of Congo SAINT-LOUIS, Senegal SEYCHELLES ZANZIBAR CITY, Tanzania Overview As urban populations and vulnerability grow, managing urban growth in a way that fosters cities’ resilience to natural hazards and the impacts of climate change becomes a greater challenge that requires detailed, up-to-date geographic data of the built environment. Addressing this challenge requires innovative, open, and dynamic data collection and mapping processes that support management of urban growth and disaster risk. Success is often contingent on local capacities and networks to maintain and utilize risk information, enabling policy environments to support effective data management and sharing, and targeted tools that can help translate data into meaningful action. Building on the success of the global Open Data for Resilience Initiative, its work on Open Cities projects in South Asia, and GFDRR’s Code for Resilience, Open Cities Africa is carried out in 11 cities in Sub-Saharan Africa to engage local government, civil society, and the private sector to develop the information infrastructures necessary to meet 21st century urban resilience challenges. Following an application process, a small team of mappers, technologists, designers, and risk experts in each of the selected cities receive funding, targeted training, technical support, and mentorship throughout the year of work to: i) create and/or compile open spatial data on the built environment, critical infrastructure, and natural hazards; ii) develop targeted systems and tools to assist key stakeholders to utilize risk information; and iii) support local capacity-building and institutional development necessary for designing and implementing evidence-driven urban resilience interventions. Phases of Implementation 1. Plan and Assess In the first phase, Open Cities teams establish what data already exists and its openness, relevance and value. Project target area and data to collect are finalized. This phase is also when teams identify project partners and stakeholders to ensure that efforts are a participatory process. At the Open Cities Kick Off Meeting, teams meet with Open Cities leadership and the other Open Cities teams in their cohort and receive training on project components. 2. Map In this second phase, teams roll out the findings and data capture strategy developed in the first phase to address critical data gaps relevant to their specific Problem Statements. On the ground, teams coordinate field data collection according to the approach developed and agreed upon in consultation with project stakeholders. Depending on needs, tools for data collection may include smartphones or tablets, drones for the collection of high resolution imagery, or handheld GPS. As the project team is training team members to collect data for the project, efforts are made to develop, and/or strengthen the local OpenStreetMap community within the selected city working in partnership with local stakeholders. Project teams may hold trainings, mapathons, or community town halls in coordination with a local university, NGO or government counterparts. 3. Design In this third phase of the project, teams use the data collected in the Map Phase to design a tool or product to communicate the data to their stakeholders to support decision-making. Products vary widely depending on city context and may include a database and visualization tool, an atlas, a map series, or a mobile application. 4. Develop and Present In the final phase of the project, teams develop their tools/products and share results with targeted end user populations and other relevant stakeholders. Once final products are shared, teams work with project mentors and Open Cities Africa leadership to establish a sustainability plan and to explore opportunities for expansion or extension. This could include convening meetings with the World Bank, government counterparts, or the nongovernmental organization and donor communities. It may also include the development of concept notes, proposals or additional user research. Learn More More information about the project and team activities can be found on the Open Cities Africa site.

Niger

In Niger, the World Bank is supporting the Government reduce the vulnerability of populations at risk of flooding, while taking into account the requirements of community development and capacity building of national structures both at central and local level. DATA SHARING PLATFORM http://risques-niger.org   COUNTERPART PGCR-DU (Projet de Gestion des Risques de Catastrophes et de Développement Urbain – Disaster Risk Management and Urban Development Project) NUMBER OF GEONODE LAYERS39 Understanding Niger’s Risks Despite its semi-arid climate, Niger is regularly stricken by floods that destroy housing, infrastructure and croplands everywhere in the country. While flood damages usually occur in the vicinity of permanent water bodies such as the Niger and Komadougou rivers, more and more damages and casualties have been reported as linked to intense precipitations and runoff in urban areas. Despite the recurrent losses, little is known about the number of people who are living in flood-prone areas or the value of properties at risk. Furthermore, the vast majority of stations in the meteorological and hydrological collection network does not have the ability to transmit data in real-time and therefore cannot be fully exploited in emergency situations. Collecting Data With the support of the World Bank, the PGRC-DU is supporting the Nigerien Ministry of water and sanitation to retrofit the hydrometric station network with new water level gauges with real-time data transmission capability. The new gauges will make hydrometric data collection more efficient and more reliable while allowing for a faster detection of flood risk. At the same time, the PGRC-DU is funding the collection of critical socio-economic information and building characteristics in all areas of Niamey (the capital of Niger) that are deemed vulnerable to floods. UAVs are being used to acquire high-resolution images of potentially flooded areas that would help better identify buildings characteristics and develop a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) with 10cm vertical resolution, which will help better predict water movement in the area. Sharing Data The collected hydrometric data will be available to selected users in an online portal, along with various other data sets from regional and global sources. Part of the data collected in Niamey is expected to contribute to the OpenStreetMap project. The rest of the data will be analyzed and converted into vulnerability maps and reports available to the public. Using Data It is expected that the network of real-time hydrometric stations will be used to feed a flood warning system that will provide authorities a better estimate of flood risk at any given time. The acquired DTM is being used to develop computer models that can simulate flood propagation in the city of Niamey and evaluate the effects of existing of planned flood protection infrastructures. Finally, the collected socio-economic data combined with flood simulations will provide decision-makers an accurate estimation of flood risk in terms of exposed populations and expected economic damages.

Uganda

In Uganda, the World Bank is supporting the Government to develop improved access to drought risk related information and quicken the decision of scaling up disaster risk financing (DRF) mechanisms COUNTERPART National Emergency Coordination and Operations Center (NECOC) Project Overview In the context of the third Northern Uganda Social Action Fund Project (NUSAF III), the World Bank is supporting the Government of Uganda to develop improved access to drought risk related information and quicken the decision of scaling up disaster risk financing (DRF) mechanisms. The OpenDRI team is providing technical assistance to Uganda’s National Emergency Coordination and Operations Center (NECOC) in determining requirements for collecting, storing and analyzing satellite data used for monitoring drought conditions. Understanding Uganda’s Risk In recent years Uganda has been impacted by drought, with more than 10% of the population being at risk. The northern sub-region of Karamoja is one of the most severely hit, with a consequent increase in food insecurity. Currently the Government of Uganda (GoU) faces challenges in the collection and analysis of information upon which they can base a decision to respond and mitigate such risk. Without transparent, objective and timely data, times in mobilizing and financing responses can be delayed. Collecting Data The World Bank is supporting GoU to strengthen its disaster risk management strategy and response mechanisms. The current engagement looks to develop a more systematic, robust system for collecting, storing and analyzing drought risk related information to enable GoU to make more timely decisions. By retrieving satellite data systematically, NECOC will be able to analyze current crop and vegetation conditions with historic information, and quickly detect early warning signs of drought. Uganda has a vibrant OpenStreetMap community, which has been mapping the country since 2010. A pilot community mapping project funded by GFDRR with support from the Government of Belgium, is being conducted in the city of Kampala. Sharing Data The OpenDRI team provides support and advice to GoU in developing best practices for sharing and managing risk related information. Interoperability of data sources produced by various ministries and non-government organizations is critical to ensure timely access to data by NECOC and conduct effective drought risk analysis. A geospatial data sharing platform will be deployed by GoU to facilitate exchange of such critical information and adoption of data standards. Using Data A technical committee, composed of experts from the government and partner organizations, has agreed to use a satellite derived indicator known as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as the primary dataset to inform decisions for triggering the disaster risk financing mechanism. Initially the system will be exclusively dedicated to monitoring drought risk in the northern sub-region of Karamoja. In the following years, it is expected to expand operations and cover other regions exposed to drought risk, integrating additional data sources which will become accessible thanks to improved data collection strategies and sharing mechanisms.

Zanzibar

The Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar (RGoZ) with the support of the World Bank has been developing the Open Data for Resilience Initiative (OpenDRI) with the aim of supporting evidence-based and innovative solutions to better plan, mitigate, and prepare for natural disasters. Zanzibar is part of the Southwest Indian Ocean Risk Assessment and Financing Initiative (SWIO RAFI) which seeks to address high vulnerability of the Southwest Indian Ocean Island States to disaster losses from catastrophes such as cyclones, floods, earthquakes and tsunamis. These threats are exacerbated by the effects of climate change, a growing population and increased economic impacts. DATA SHARING PLATFORM PROJECT PAGE ZAN SEA FACEBOOK PAGE http://zansea-geonode.org www.zanzibarmapping.com https://www.facebook.com/zansea/ Understanding Zanzibar’s Risk Zanzibar’s disaster events are mainly related to rainfall, and both severe flooding and droughts have been experienced. Sharing Data Island Map: OpenStreetMap Data collected through SWIO RAFI activities will be shared on a GeoNode. The ZanSea GeoNode currently contains 42 maps and 102 layers of geospatial data for Zanzibar. Collecting Data The Zanzibar mapping initiative is creating a high resolution map of the islands of Zanzibar and Pemba, over 2300 square km, using low-cost drones instead of satellite images or manned planes. The Zanzibar Commission for Lands will use the maps for better planning, land tenure and environmental monitoring. Data is being collected in collaboration with the RGoZ. Using Data Data collected can be used for risk assessment and planning activities.

Pacific Islands: Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu

Pacific Catastrophe Risk Assessment and Financing Initiative (PCRAFI) is a joint initiative of SOPAC/SPC, World Bank, and the Asian Development Bank with the financial support of the Government of Japan, the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) and the ACP-EU Natural Disaster Risk Reduction Programme, and technical support from AIR Worldwide, New Zealand GNS Science, Geoscience Australia, Pacific Disaster Center (PDC), OpenGeo and GFDRR Labs. DATA SHARING PLATFORM http://pcrafi.spc.int/beta/ NUMBER OF LAYERS 522 Understanding Risks in Pacific Island Countries The Pacific Island Countries are highly exposed to the adverse effects of climate change and natural hazards, which can result in disasters affecting their economic, human, and physical environment and impacting their long-term development agenda. Since 1950, natural disasters have affected approximately 9.2 million people in the Pacific Region, causing 9,811 reported deaths. Sharing Data throughout the Pacific Islands Launched in December 2011, the Pacific Risk Information System enhances management and sharing of geospatial data within the Pacific community. The system enables the creation of a dynamic online community around risk data by piloting the integration of social web features with geospatial data management. Exposure, hazard, and risk maps for 15 Pacific Countries were produced as part of the Pacific Catastrophe Risk Assessment and Financing Initiative (PCRAFI) 2 and are accessible through this platform as powerful visual tools for informing decision-makers, facilitating communication and education on disaster risk management. Thumbnail Image by Samoa Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade licensed under CC BY 2.0

Sri Lanka

The Disaster Management Centre of Sri Lanka (DMC) with the support of the World Bank has been developing the Open Data for Resilience Initiative (OpenDRI) to support evidence-based methods to better plan for, mitigate, and respond to natural disasters. COUNTERPART Disaster Management Centre, Ministry of Disaster Management NUMBER OF BUILDINGS MAPPED 130,564 with 8 attributes each ROADS MAPPED >1000 km   Understanding Sri Lanka’s Risks Since 2000, flood and drought events have cumulatively affected more than 13 million people across Sri Lanka. Regular flooding, drought, and landslides are natural hazards that threaten the long-term growth and development of the country. In Sri Lanka, nearly $500 million in unplanned expenditures resulting from flooding in 2010 and 2011 has strained government budgets and required reallocation from other planned development priorities. The impacts of these events are growing due to increased development and climate change, both of which put more assets at risk. Sharing Data To enable better disaster risk modeling, the Government of Sri Lanka partnered with GFDRR, UNDP and OCHA on the development of an OpenDRI program in November 2012. This branch of the initiative focused on the South Asia Region and was dubbed the Open Cities project. A component of the OpenDRI Open Cities mission in Sri Lanka was to collate data around hazards and exposure and prepare them to be uploaded into a GeoNode which serves as a disaster risk information platform. Working with the DMC, the National Survey Department, Department of the Census and Statistics, Nation Building Research Organization, Information and Communication Technology Agency, Department of Irrigation, several universities and the international partners, the OpenDRI team supported DMC with the aggregation of data that had been stored in static PDFs, old paper maps and several databases onto the GeoNode. The data on the GeoNode is currently available to authorized users in the OpenDRI network, in preparation for launch. This transitional state is typical for open data projects, as the partnership reviews data with the parties and affirms that it is ready for release to the open public. Some layers may restrict access only to authorized users. Collecting Data The project has also built technical capacity and awareness in Sri Lanka through training sessions on open data and crowdsourced mapping in Batticaloa city and Gampaha District. As a result of the Open Data for Resilience Initiative, government and academic volunteers have mapped over 130,000 buildings and 1000 kilometers of roadways on the crowdsourced OpenStreetMap database. This enables the country to plan ahead and be prepared for future disaster and climate risks. It also helps planning during disaster responses: the data was used to assess flooding impacts in real time and direct government resources during the May 2016 floods in Gampaha district.

resources

At OpenDRI we are committed to increasing information that can empower individuals and their governments to reduce risk to natural hazards and climate change in their communities. We’ve compiled a database of relevant resources to share what we have learned through our own projects and from the work of others.

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